Hi all! Today we’re going to see what’s going on behind the scenes – how paper production and papermaking technology is finally revealed to us. The long road of automation and refinement of the paper production process, technology and final product composition has resulted in the transition to sophisticated automated lines.
In the beginning, paper was made by hand, without the use of special tools. The sheets were rough and not durable, and today’s whiteness could only be dreamed of. With the development of technology, the invention of new useful devices, a paper-making machine was developed.
Over time, it has only improved, but its very invention was truly a key turn in the history of the paper industry.
In this article, we will look at:
– What are the steps involved in producing paper for the office.
– What makes up the paper, what additives are used today.
– The elements that make up a paper-making machine.
Итак, приступим. Сейчас производство бумаги – технология сложная технически (наличие норм и ГОСТов) и довольно затратная (высокая стоимость сложного оборудования).
Do you know how much a 500-sheet pack of A4 paper weighs? No one is interested in homemade paper in large volumes, so the industry is dominated by large global corporations with huge factories.
A machine for making paper, includes many elements that are included in the process, depending on the stage of production. Let’s go through the process in order.
Depending on the nature of production, both primary and secondary raw materials can be used. Recycled materials include used magazines, newspapers and other print products. Primary raw materials include pulp fibers processed from wood.
Both raw materials, cleaned and rinsed, enter the machine’s conveyor belt.
Paper production and technology
The first step is the formation of the paper web. With the help of an endless mesh, the paper is deprived of the basic amount of water.
Получается своеобразный фильтр – древесные волокна движутся дальше, а вода просачивается сквозь сетку. Сетка приводиться в движение валиками, вокруг которых она натянута отчего её движение получается бесконечным.
By the way, a similar grid was used in the earliest production of paper, only it was not looped and automated, so the process took much longer.
In the second stage, the paper web passes through three presses. Their task is to squeeze the remaining water out of the raw material and give the necessary density to the paper. These two processes can be called “wet” because the subsequent steps will involve drying the product.
The next step consists of passing the paper web over internally heated hot steam rollers. They are arranged in two rows so that the paper is clamped by the rollers at the top and bottom.
This makes the paper finally dry. At the end of the process, it is usually 95% dry. Finally, the fabric is run through cooled rollers to give it the necessary plasticity.
In the final process, the paper is given a gloss, smoothness and additional compaction. It passes tightly through the cast-iron rollers, which are staggered, top and bottom. The paper alternately wraps around the top and bottom rolls.
The high pressure on the paper makes it denser. This process is called calendering. The resulting paper is wound into rolls or cut and packed into boxes.
This completes the production of paper and the technology, as you can see, is not very complicated, but setting up the technological process can take a considerable amount of time, because it depends on the properties of the feedstock – moisture, fiber and resin content.