Why food cannot be stored in foil
Refrigerated leftovers usually won’t spoil for up to four days if they’re covered and stored properly. For most people, covering plates with foil and placing them in the refrigerator is a quick and easy way to store food. However, wrapping your food in a sheet of aluminum foil is putting your health at risk.
Just as we need air to breathe, bacteria need air to “thrive”. Some bacteria such as Staphylococcus and Bacillus cereus,
foodborne illnesses produce toxins that are not destroyed by high cooking temperatures. When hot food is left at room temperature for more than two hours, bacteria multiply rapidly.
Using aluminum foil to cover food poses the same risk because it does not completely seal your food from the air.
“When air is present, it allows bacteria to grow faster, so you must use the right containers and package foods accordingly,” says Lindsay Malone, a registered dietitian at the Cleveland Clinic. “Otherwise your food won’t last long.”
Malone’s golden rule: Always seal leftovers in small, airtight containers to speed up the cooling process and keep food free from bacteria. And make sure you put the food in the refrigerator within two hours of cooking so your hard work isn’t in vain.
Dairy and meat products are especially susceptible to bacterial growth, further emphasizing the importance of using airtight containers.
“If you have a lot of leftover food, the smartest thing to do is put some in the refrigerator and pack the rest in airtight containers and store in the freezer,” advises Malone. “And then when you’re ready to eat, you’ll take it out.”
Do you use foil for storage?
What should you store in foil?
Celery is usually sold in a plastic bag, from which almost no one takes it out. Meanwhile, it is plastic packaging
is one of the reasons why this healthy vegetable loses its juiciness and fades so quickly. The fact is that the bag traps ethylene gas produced by vegetables, which causes the process of their ripening, and at the same time
overripening, accelerates. To stop it
However, celery should be stored wrapped in
. This material seems impenetrable, but in fact aluminum foil allows ethylene to not linger inside as much as in film, and this slows down the ripening process.
Celery stalks, tightly wrapped in foil, can be stored for up to a month and will remain fresh and crisp.
You can store any juicy green vegetables, such as lettuce or broccoli, in the same way. Foil can also be used to store fish, dishes with garlic and other foods with a strong odor.
In the freezer
In this case, the most reliable conditions for fish products are created. Fish is frozen if you intend to store it for more than 2 days. Place the products in the freezer in small portions, wrapping each in plastic.
Frozen fresh fish carcass can be stored for up to several months. Such storage does not affect the organoleptic properties or nutritional value.
Thaws a frozen semi-finished product for several hours. It is strongly not recommended to speed up this process with hot water or a microwave.
It should be remembered that repeated freezing of fish will dramatically change the density of the product and its organoleptic properties for the worse (thawed fish products cannot be frozen).
In the refrigerator
Many housewives think that storing fish at home with a refrigerator is nothing special due to the constant temperature regime in the unit. Therefore, even if the dish is not expected to be cooked in the next few hours, the product is easily sent to the shelf without any preparatory actions. In fact, even with an average of 4 degrees, the carcass will gradually lose its taste.
It is very important to follow several recommendations:
- First of all, process the carcass – clean, rinse, wipe dry.
- Place the container with the product closer to the far wall of the chamber, where the temperature is relatively low. Moreover, place it so that there are no products nearby that are not subject to mandatory heat treatment. These include: cheese, sausages, salads. It is also not recommended to store cottage cheese, milk or butter nearby if you do not want them to absorb a specific smell.
- Rub the gutted fish all over with salicylic acid powder and wrap it in a vinegar-soaked piece of clean cloth.
- Store the fish in the refrigerator, wrapped (use any cotton cloth as material).
Fish should be preserved exclusively in its purified form, without scales, entrails and gills. The skin, on the contrary, should not be removed.
In cheese and salt
At high processing temperatures, for example, when food is baked in aluminum foil, the ligation process starts – aluminum particles can pass into the food. So, along with a ready-made dish, you can eat from 1 to 2 mg of aluminum. And if you add lemon juice or spices to your food before baking, there will be even more metal in it.
Thus, according to WHO, safe aluminum consumption for humans is about 40 mg per kg of body weight per day. It seems that such an amount of metal cannot enter the body simply after baking food.
head of the analytical bureau of the expert center of the Union of Consumers “Roskontrol” Andrey Mosov
. In addition, dishes are made from aluminum, it is found in a number of medicines (for example, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems), antiperspirants, and they are used to purify water. Therefore, in essence, we are constantly consuming aluminum.
“If it directly enters the body in the form of any soluble salt, it will have a toxic effect mainly on the brain, liver and other parenchymal organs,” the expert emphasizes. The most common symptoms of poisoning are bone pain, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, anemia, diseases of the respiratory system, and disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system. And for children, aluminum consumption is fraught with stunted growth and development.
Is it dangerous to cook food in aluminum foil?
There are many recipes for cooking fish, meat and vegetables in aluminum foil. This method is considered gentle; the dishes turn out juicy, soft and healthy. However, scientists believe that this type of cooking threatens to cause an excessive amount of aluminum in the body. I don’t know, maybe this is from the same series as You should never wash raw chicken from the store?
. I don’t know, think about it.
But these are the consequences scientists warn about.
For example, a high concentration of the metal was found in the brain tissue of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (as a result of which scientists suggest that it is the excess aluminum in the body that is the first impetus for the development of this terrible disease.). It reduces the growth rate of brain cells. Aluminum also harms patients with bone diseases and impaired kidney function. Most women with malignant breast tumors find deposits of this heavy metal in the lymph nodes close to the breast.
What is aluminum foil? These are thin metal sheets obtained from – surprise! Aluminum! It turns out that foil comes in different forms and can contain from 92% to 99% pure Aluminum.
Aluminum is widely used in the cooking process. Aluminum pots and pans are still often used in houses and apartments, and especially often in catering establishments.
The lead author of the study, associate professor and head of the department of chemistry at Cairo’s Ain Shams University, Ghada Bassioni, does not call for abandoning the usual utensils, but warns that foil made from the same aluminum can be dangerous, especially with high heat and during cooking sour or spicy foods.
The human body is able to effectively eliminate small amounts of externally supplied aluminum. Therefore, small doses of metal do not cause concern among doctors.
The World Health Organization has established a safe limit of 40 mg of aluminum per day per 1 kg of human weight.
Thus, if you weigh 75 kg, it is quite acceptable to eat 3 grams of metal daily.
The problem is that many people eat more of it. Aluminum is found not only in cookware, but also in foods such as corn, yellow cheese, herbs, spices, tea and even salt. In addition, the metal is used in pharmacology and in the process of drinking water purification.
At the household level, we cannot eliminate aluminum from medicines, unprocessed foods and drinking water. But we can all easily limit its intake into the body through kitchen utensils and foil.
Aluminum, as is known from a school chemistry course, is always covered with a thin film of oxides. On the surface of thick cookware, an oxide layer gradually accumulates and becomes stronger, effectively preventing food from contacting the metal.
Vigorous brushing thins the protective layer, but Dr. Bassioni does not consider this a problem.
To restore the protective properties of the dishes, she advises boiling water in a saucepan a couple of times until the interior surface, shiny after cleaning, becomes dull again.
With foil it’s a completely different story. It is very thin and intended for single use. No amount of trickery can create a thick oxide layer on it that can reliably isolate products from contact with metal. As Ms. Bassioni writes:
“The migration of aluminum into foil-wrapped foods during cooking is above the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization.”
Especially a lot of aluminum gets into food during high heat and when using sour sauces containing tomato juice and lemon. The processes of leaching metal into food are even more active if you add hot seasonings and spices.
Ghada Bassioni is sure that aluminum foil should not be used for cooking. Instead, she recommends making greater use of glassware and porcelain for baking.
However, the scientist does not call for completely banishing foil from the kitchen. It is quite acceptable to use it for short-term storage of cold sandwiches.
This is what the head of the laboratory of the Russian Gerontological Research and Clinical Center of Roszdrav, Dr. b., answers the question posed in the title of the post. n. Elena Tereshina:
– It’s really better not to use aluminum foil. When it comes into contact with food, it oxidizes, and aluminum hydroxide does not dissolve in water and is not excreted from the body. There is evidence that the accumulation of aluminum in the body can cause serious diseases – from anemia and cystitis to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. But there is no need to panic – the amount of aluminum that enters the body with food is negligible, and in order to develop such sores, food baked or stored in foil must be eaten constantly. But it is better to use glass dishes for baking and storing food.
And here’s what the skeptics say:
Do you know the drug “Phosphalugel” for the treatment of gastritis? This drug has been used for more than 20 years. It has passed all the necessary tests for non-toxicity and has proven its safety over many years of use. Each dose of this drug contains several grams of aluminum in the active form when taken orally. You can easily calculate that you cannot get that much aluminum from foil even when used in a strongly acidic environment even after 10 years of continuous cooking in foil.
In general, no more than a few milligrams of oxide can come off the foil at a time; it is quite chemically stable (inert). It is quite obvious that you can exceed the dangerous dose only if you completely dissolve the foil in a strong acid and then pour this solution over the food. There aren’t many crazy people.
Something else interesting on medical topics: for example, they claim that More than half of the trials of new medical drugs are corrupt
and it turns out that There is no need to clean your ears
. Somehow we also discussed Are healers a myth or reality?
and how oysters kill people
One of the longest-lasting types of products is ice cream. Such products must comply with GOST 32366-2021. Essentially, it is fresh fish that is quickly frozen under industrial conditions.
Attention. The main feature of storing such products is the prevention of defrosting, and therefore the standard provides for storage at a temperature no higher than minus 18 degrees.
The manufacturer sets the shelf life of different breeds depending on the temperature conditions. Standardized shelf life values are given in the table.
|Shelf life in months at temperature
|Sturgeon and whitefish
|Horse mackerel and cod
|Small things (ram, capelin, etc.)
|Other marine fish
As the temperature increases, the shelf life decreases significantly. So:
- In salmon breeds at:
- minus 10°С it is 3 months;
- in the range of minus 5-6 °C – 14 days;
- at 0°C – 24 hours
- For herring species, the deadline is:
- 14 days;
- 24 hours
- 14 days;
- 24 hours respectively.
Attention. In general, the shelf life at a temperature not exceeding 25°C increases by 30% compared to a temperature of minus 18-20°C.
How to choose fish for preparing delicious dishes
Not only the taste of the fish, but also how long it can be stored in finished form will depend on the quality and freshness of the raw materials. If it was not originally fresh, then you shouldn’t expect it to last long.
Therefore, you should pay attention to the following nuances:
- It is advisable to take fresh fish for cooking. A dish prepared from such raw materials will, after cooking, be juicier and tastier than one made from frozen.
- It is better to take medium-sized carcasses. They are quite juicy, and river fish also smell less of mud and algae.
- For all types of dishes, it is advisable to buy varieties with a minimum number of small bones. Otherwise, you will have to spend a lot of time and effort removing them. Ideally, take fillet, there is no waste and no bones.
- Fatty varieties taste better, absorb odors less and contain healthy Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, which are so necessary for humans.
- Sea and river fish are good for frying. In the first case, these are pollock, polengas, halibut, cod. Among freshwater inhabitants, carp, catfish, pike, and pike perch have proven themselves well.
It should be taken into account that seafood contains more nutrients, has fewer bones, and can be stored longer. As practice shows, fresh fish meat contains more vitamins and minerals, has an attractive smell, and does not fall into pieces when cooked and fried.
How and how long to store dried and dried fish
Only fish of high quality and without signs of spoilage, such as an unpleasant odor, are allowed to be stored dried. The storage room for dried fish should be cool.
- pantry without windows;
- shaded balcony;
It is recommended to wrap fish carcasses with parchment paper or tracing paper. Large fish are wrapped individually, and small fish are wrapped in small groups. This will prevent it from drying out.
The bundles are hung in places where the sun’s rays do not reach. The recommended air humidity in such a room is 70-80%. At higher humidity, the fish will become moldy. Drier air in storage will cause the product to dry out.
Fish varieties with low fat content are suitable for dry storage. The best method is to store dried fish carcasses, wrapped in plastic, in the freezer. After removal from the freezer, such a semi-finished product needs to be dried.
Dried fish carcasses wrapped in paper are stored in the refrigerator for a long time. In this case, they are suitable for consumption for six months.
Large quantities of dried fish products can be stored in cardboard or wooden boxes covered with fabric. In this form, the product can be stored for 6 months.
How to cook baked fish in foil – all about food and its preparation –
About the benefits of fish
More than a dozen books have been written; fish is included in all diets without exception, since it contains a minimum of fat, and it is very useful for our body, especially a weakened one.
Fish contains a large amount of vitamins
, among which a special place is occupied by Omega acids, which reduce cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease. In order to provide your body with the necessary amount of Omega acids, you need to eat sea and ocean fish at least once a week.
Fish is able to provide the body with the necessary amount of protein.
Systematic consumption of fish maintains the level of iodine
in the body at the required level.
In a word, if you want to be healthy, you need to eat as much fish as possible. But in order for all the beneficial substances to be preserved in it, and for the dish itself to bring not only taste pleasure, but also benefits for the body, it is not at all necessary to fry it in a large amount of oil.
Baking fish is a good way to preserve nutrients in it and avoid adding vegetable fat. And if you bake fish in foil, you can avoid the long and tedious process of washing dishes after cooking.
River trout baked in foil
Anyone can prepare this recipe, even those who are in the kitchen for the first time.
Preheat the oven to 220 degrees. Salt the cleaned river trout or season with soy sauce instead of salt, pepper and put a sprig of rosemary inside the fish.
Wrap the trout in foil and place in the preheated oven. Cooking time for trout takes about 20-15 minutes, depending on the size of the fish.
Serve the finished fish hot; you can serve fresh salad or boiled vegetables as a side dish.
Baked sea bream stuffed with vegetables
Take whole, pre-cleaned fish, rub it with salt and spices.
Peel and finely chop the vegetables. Fry a little in vegetable oil.
Transfer the lightly stewed vegetables to a separate bowl, add salt and pepper. To stir thoroughly.
Place the vegetable mixture inside the fish, and add whole sprigs of oregano.
Preheat the oven to 200-220 degrees.
Place the fish on food foil, cover the fish with oregano sprigs and only then wrap tightly. Place the fish in the preheated oven and bake for 30 -35 minutes.
Fragrant, juicy fish is ready. It can be accompanied by potatoes
This dish may well become a decoration for any holiday table.
Prepare the sauce. Grate the zest of one lemon. Squeeze lemon juice. Peel and chop the chili pepper, mix it with soy sauce, honey, zest, lemon juice.
Cut the salmon into two large lengthwise fillets, leaving the skin on. Make deep cuts in several places on the salmon.
Spread baking foil on a baking sheet and place threads on it to tie the salmon.
Place one piece of fillet on a baking sheet. Place orange and lemon slices on it and pour a little sauce over it.
Place the second piece of fillet on top and tie them with threads, pour over the rest of the sauce. Wrap the fish in foil and marinate for at least 4 hours. After this, take the fish out of the refrigerator.
Preheat the oven to 200 degrees, place the fish in it, but do not cover it completely with foil, but so that one side remains open. Bake for 40-45 minutes.
Festive salmon is ready, it can be served as a side dish with potatoes, rice, boiled asparagus
and just fresh salad
Baked fish in lemon-garlic sauce
Any fish from the breed salmon is suitable for this recipe
: pink salmon
Grind 2 cloves of garlic and dill.
Finely grate the lemon zest.
Melt the butter and mix it with half the dill, garlic and zest. Place in the refrigerator to harden again.
Make longitudinal cuts on the fish.
In a bowl, mix vegetable oil, remaining dill, garlic, lemon juice, add salt and pepper.
Lubricate the fish on both sides with the resulting marinade, especially carefully lubricate the cuts. Leave to marinate for 30 minutes.
Take the frozen butter out of the refrigerator and put it inside the fish, putting a small amount on the fish itself.
Wrap the fish tightly in foil and place it in an oven preheated to 200 degrees. Bake for 20 minutes.
After this time, we take out the fish, unwrap it and put it in the oven again, but without foil, so that a golden brown crust forms on it. 5-7 minutes are enough for this.
“Lazy” salmon on a bed of vegetables
This recipe will be appreciated by those who love delicious food, but who do not like to spend a lot of time at the stove; baked salmon is an option for them.
For the marinade, mix olive oil, lemon juice, salt and spices, mix thoroughly, add squeezed garlic.
Spread the marinade over the steaks and leave to marinate a little while we prepare the vegetables for the bed and preheat the oven.
Wash the vegetables and cut them into large pieces, cut the cherry tomatoes into halves.
Line a baking pan with foil. Place a layer of peppers, carrots and onions on it, then salmon steaks. Place cherry tomatoes between them and grease the vegetables and fish with sour cream.
Place the pan in an oven preheated to 200 degrees. Bake for 10 minutes. Then reduce the temperature to 160 degrees and bake for another 20 minutes.
Half an hour and a delicious dinner with a side dish is ready.
You can find other recipes on our website in the “Recipes” section.
Author: Vira (especially for obumage.net
Copying this article in whole or in part is prohibited.
Signs of fish spoilage
It is possible to determine that fish products have begun to deteriorate without conducting laboratory analysis.
A product that has begun to lose its consumer qualities has the following signs:
- unpleasant smell;
- the presence of mucus on the gills;
- change in gill color from a natural red tint to gray, brown, greenish;
- dull, sunken eyes of gray or brown color;
- in naturally brightly colored fish, the bright shades disappear and become faded;
- the mucus covering the carcass becomes sticky, increases in volume, and clots appear;
- the elasticity of the meat decreases: when pressed, a dent remains that does not straighten out for a long time (in this way you can determine the freshness of both fish carcasses and fillets or steaks);
- the scales of spoiled fish fall off and come off easily;
- the meat in the ridge area takes on a reddish tint.
How long can you store at room temperature
A particularly pressing question for those whose refrigerator has unexpectedly broken down or has to transport the product over a certain distance. Without certain treatment, the fish will gradually begin to deteriorate after just a few hours of being outside the refrigerator at room temperature. However, if you follow these tips, the shelf life increases from 3 to 5 days:
- Be sure to clean and gut the fish and remove the gills. Rinse thoroughly in running water, and then wipe dry with a kitchen towel (especially the inside).
- Use a natural preservative in the form of salt. It is necessary to rub the carcass both outside and inside. As an addition, sprinkle with ground black pepper. Then wrap it tightly with gauze (can be replaced with clean cotton cloth), folded in several layers, and hang it in a cooler place. Some life hackers advise using nettle leaves to stop the decay process. You can also soak a rag in a vinegar solution.
- Tamp the crumb of white bread into the peribranchial space, which you first dip in vodka.
- It is not necessary to clean the product to preserve it. In this case, you can place the carcass in a strong salt solution and place pressure on top. The time directly depends on how long you need to keep the product out of the refrigerator.
- If you are not afraid of extraordinary solutions, then you can sprinkle the fish with granulated sugar in the ratio: one tablespoon per kilogram of product. Such manipulations will allow you to preserve the carcass for up to a week.
It is preferable to place fish processed using any of the above methods in a shaded place, because sunlight accelerates the process of decomposition of the product.
There are some tricks and tips that would be useful for any housewife to know:
- The purchase of fish should be carried out at specialized retail outlets, where all the necessary conditions for preserving fish products are provided.
- Herring should be kept in an airtight container, as it has a strong odor.
- It is prohibited to store products in metal containers. The best containers for this type of product are containers made of ceramics, glass, and food-grade plastic.
- The optimal type of packaging is paper without printing. She will absorb the juices. Otherwise, the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the fish juice is possible.
- When cutting into portions, do not remove the skin. It will protect the fish from drying out.
- It is not advisable to freeze balyk, canned food, and caviar.
- Herring is stored only in a dark room. When exposed to sunlight, the product acquires a bitter taste.
- It is important to observe the rule of product proximity. Meat, cheese, and eggs should not be placed next to fish.
It is necessary to take a responsible approach to the issue of storing such a perishable product as fish. Shelf life depends on the type of fish, the method of its preparation and storage conditions.
Compliance with all safety rules and regulations will not only help you prepare a delicious dish, but will also protect you from possible food poisoning.
Shelf life of fresh and live fish
If it is not possible to immediately prepare the product, it should be placed in the refrigerator. Species of fish that are least demanding of the composition of the water and the concentration of oxygen in it are allowed for live storage. For this purpose, retail outlets selling live fish are equipped with special aquariums in which proper conditions are maintained.
The most important in this case are:
- water quality;
- oxygen content in water;
- absence of hydrogen sulfide and methane.
Water from ponds containing phytoplankton is considered unsuitable for keeping live fish.
Tap water must be dechlorinated before being used to store live fish, which is most easily done by blowing air through the water for 10-15 minutes. In addition, specialized filters and activated carbon are used to improve water quality.
Much attention is paid to water temperature. This is due to the fact that when the temperature is too high, pathogenic microflora develops in the water, and when the temperature is too low, the fish falls asleep.
The shelf life of live fish in aquariums installed in special stores is no more than 2 days.
When storing chilled fish carcasses, the main parameter is the temperature in the thickness of the meat and in the spine area, which should be within -1…-5°C. More pronounced cooling leads to freezing.
Chilled fish carcasses should be stored with ice in a 1:1 ratio. But such cooling is uneven.
Please be aware that this may reduce the quality of the product due to injury and deformation. Products cooled by a cold liquid medium have higher quality.
Most often, cooking food in foil raises the question: “Which side of the foil should be placed inward and which side should be placed outward?” And the only correct answer is that food should be placed on the shiny side of the foil, and the matte side should be left on the outside. If the foil is thin, you may need to use two sheets of baking foil or wrap the food twice. You can also line a baking dish with foil, cover the top and seal the edges.
When baking fish or meat, you must ensure that the bones do not damage the integrity of the foil – the wrapper must be airtight to prevent juices from leaking and burning during cooking. The fins need to be removed as they have a chance of charring long before the fish is ready.
It is better to use dry spices and herbs for cooking in foil, and if you use sauces for baking meat, fish or vegetables, then it is best to wrap the food in a sheet of baking paper before wrapping it in foil. This technique can also be used when baking for a long time at low temperatures: for a leg of lamb or shoulder, turkey drumstick, beef tenderloin.
Birds, especially stuffed ones, need to be sewn up with thick thread or secured with toothpicks, hiding the sharp edges inside.
Bake the potatoes in foil without spices, rinsing them well and removing all damage
10-20 minutes before the end of baking, carefully unfold the foil and let the meat, fish or poultry brown, turning up the heat in the oven.
Storage conditions for fried fish
Fish contains potassium and phosphorus, which have a beneficial effect on the human body. It is recommended to be eaten by adults and children to improve vision and sharpen cognitive abilities. Heat treatment does not prevent it from remaining useful. The shelf life of fried fish in a cold place does not exceed two days.
How long can you store fried fish in the refrigerator so that it does not lose its taste and aroma.
- At room temperature, the product can be kept for no more than two to three hours. During this time, the dish will be able to be placed in a container and sent to the refrigerator.
- Fried pieces will keep refrigerated for up to 48 hours. For storage you will need a container with an airtight lid. Fish absorbs odors strongly, so it must be covered.
- Other fish dishes have a shelf life of no more than 24 hours. The fish soup needs to be boiled before each use; it spoils very quickly. It is recommended to cook fish soup in small quantities.
- Immediately after frying, seafood releases a strong aroma. Before eating food from the refrigerator, it must be warmed up. The taste and aroma of the fish become less pronounced.
- If longer storage is required than two days, the prepared dish can be frozen. Fried and baked fish will last about two weeks in the freezer. It is better to distribute it into bags in portions so as not to defrost the product several times. As a result, the fish loses its structure, shape and taste.
- How long can boiled fish meat be stored? Its shelf life is no different from fried food. It is necessary to remove the fish from the broth, so it will last longer.
Knowing the storage methods and storage times, you can regulate the number of prepared dishes. Provided that it is properly frozen, the hostess will always be ready to feed her loved ones and guests.
Storage of prepared dishes – terms and standards
One of the questions that arises when choosing a suitable dish is how long can it be stored? Will it spoil in the refrigerator in 1-2 days?
Most of us are accustomed to determining the suitability of a product for consumption based on its appearance, smell and taste. And this method has its own logic: rotting, fermentation, fat oxidation and microbiological spoilage, possible in a refrigerator, usually lead to a change in the appearance, smell or consistency of food.
What do professionals say about this? For example, rules for army canteens in the United States allow most types of prepared portioned food to be stored for 24 hours. Storage of most products for this period (and even more) is allowed by Sanitary Standards for the shelf life of perishable foods in the refrigerator, at a temperature of 2 – 6 degrees Celsius, approved by the USSR Ministry of Health in 1986 (these standards are still used by regulatory authorities in post-Soviet countries) .
Under the cut – sanitary standards and general principles
So, according to SanPiN 42-123-4117-86
, finished products can be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2 – 6 degrees Celsius for the following periods (in hours):
Boiled meat, in large pieces – 24;
stuffed stewed meat – 24;
fried meat (large pieces) – 48;
fried liver – 24;
Boiled meat offal
(tongue, udder, heart, kidneys, brains) – 18;
fried minced meat products
(cutlets, steaks, schnitzels) – 12;
baked duck and chicken carcasses – 48;
meat jellies and jellied meat – 12;
fried poultry and rabbit meat – 48;
poultry cutlets – 12;
boiled poultry carcasses – 24;
boiled poultry, chopped into portions, in jelly – 24;
boiled eggs – 24;
fried fish of all types – 36;
boiled fish of all types – 24;
baked fish of all types – 48;
stuffed fish – 24;
jellied fish – 24;
squid products – 24;
boiled crayfish and shrimp – 12;
fresh chopped white cabbage blanched – 12
cabbage, carrot, vegetable, potato casserole with meat – 18
sauerkraut salad – 24;
sautéed onions, carrots – 48
boiled peeled vegetables:
beets – 24;
carrots – 24;
potatoes – 18;
salads (meat, capital, fish)
unfilled – 12;
cakes and pastries:
with butter cream,
including “Potato” cake – 36;
without cream finishing, with protein cream
or with fruit trim – 72;
with custard, with whipped cream – 6.
The standards adopted for public catering organizations are much stricter
than for home. Their main goal is to prevent food from becoming infected even in the most unfavorable conditions. Such as, for example, heat and a high level of microbial contamination outside the refrigeration chamber at the time of preparation of the semi-finished product. And the initial freshness of food in the catering system is a variable with many unknowns.
In addition, these standards do not require the use of special storage devices: such as tightly packing hot dishes in cling film, foil, or placing them in vacuum containers. Meanwhile, such measures can really extend the life of the product.
These terms, defined by SanPiN 42-123-4117-86, can be taken into account rather as the minimum period
storage of food and prepared meals. If you are not cooking in camping conditions (for example, in a tent in the forest) or in a hot desert, then these periods significantly exceed the permissible ones. For example, most of us know from our personal experience that homemade cutlets can be stored in the refrigerator for much longer than 12 hours. And the tradition of finishing up on January 1-2 everything that was not eaten on New Year’s Eve is well known to all of us.