Types of nails, how to choose a nail, how to hammer a nail

Construction nails are the most popular fasteners. To hang a picture, hang trim and baseboards, you need to know how to drive a nail correctly. Everywhere you look you see these little metal soldiers holding various parts. Not a single repair will pass them by

Construction nails, finishing nails, slate nails and many others

No matter how simple the fastening elements may seem at first glance, they have three components: a head, a tenon and an end, and can be of a square section or in the form of a pyramidal cross. The body and head of the nail can have different sizes and different shapes. Variations of these parameters determine the specific purposes and required installation equipment. In the Soviet Union, there was a GOST for construction nails No. 4028-63, which indicated the quantity in the package, their size and design. It is also currently used in production.

Purpose of nails and their basic configuration:

разные шляпки гвоздей предназначены для разных целей

  • Simple construction nail
    . Its length ranges from 12 to 250 mm, the cap is several times larger than the diameter of the iron rod. On the body of the fastener near the head there are transverse protruding notches that help it hold tighter in the material;
  • Screw nail.
    It was named, as you may have guessed, by the type of rod, the outer surface of which is made in the shape of a spiral. The strength of the connection with such a nail increases. Often these nails have a square cross-section. When swelling wood
    These fasteners do not come out of the material on their own. A screw nail is practically a screw.
  • Comb nail
    . Its body can be imagined in the form of truncated cones connected in series; from the side it has a jagged profile. Just like the previous copy, it has high connection strength. Such fasteners are used in the manufacture of Euro-pallets or similar structures that require a rigid bond and high strength;
  • Finishing nail.
    It differs from a simple nail design in that it has a reduced head diameter – only 1.5 times the diameter of the shank. When installing structures, the cap is driven into the material, as a result of which the cap is practically invisible. Often in practice, simple construction nails are used, after first biting off the head of them. But such a “scheme” reduces the strength of the fastening, since the material will only hold on due to frictional forces and without using the cap as a support;
  • Tar paper nails
    – nails with a larger flat head. In construction it is used when installing roofs. They have huge caps, 5-7 times larger than the diameter of the body, which helps not damage the roofing material (roofing felt, roofing felt) and increases the pressing area. When using such nails, it is better to play it safe and place it under a rubber gasket. This will further increase the strength of the connection, reduce damage to the material and prevent the penetration of water;
  • Slate nails
    . Essentially, the design of ordinary nails is the same, but they have a huge galvanized head and are attached to the main head of the nail, which prevents water from getting under the slate.

склад строительных гвоздей обычного типа

According to the shape of the head, all nails are divided into two types: with a non-concealed and a secret head. Hidden hat
, of course, better, it sits flush in the material, creating a smooth surface. If you drive a nail with a simple head, noticeable structural disturbances may appear in place of the material, i.e. wood fibers will be visible
, or, as in the case of MDF boards, it may even burst.

Galvanized and aluminum nails

The material used for nails can be very diverse. It all depends on the conditions and purposes of use of the nail. Typically, buyers don’t think about it when using it outside the home where the nails will rust. A rusty nail does not perform its main function. Therefore, it is better to choose simple construction nails made of galvanized or black steel.

Galvanized nails
designed for use in buildings, they are less susceptible to corrosion, preventing the dreaded rusty stains on the material. “Dark” nails are recommended for installing temporary structures, as they will oxidize when exposed to moisture.

To solve rust problems, you can store the nails in oil or dip them in oil before driving them
. Thanks to this, the nail will be easier to fit into the structure and will not rust, and when driven into the wood, the fibers will swell due to oil, which will lead to better fastening.

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Brass nails
. This fastening material has high anti-corrosion properties and resists oxidation well in aggressive environments. Thanks to their unique color, they fit well against the background of wooden panels.

As funny as it may sound at first glance, there are also aluminum nails
. Aluminum itself oxidizes surprisingly quickly, but the aluminum oxide produced by reacting with oxygen is very resistant to the environment. It is not affected by water or acids. That is why aluminum nails, along with brass ones, are recommended for exterior decoration of buildings.

How to hammer a nail correctly?

Any man should be able to hammer a nail. Many people think that they need to hit the hat with a hammer and that’s it, but there are no less tricks in this matter than there are wisdom in an oriental fairy tale. Here are a couple of tips that will be useful to every man:

  • When driving a nail, place it on the fastening point, holding it with your thumb and forefinger, gently tap the head a few times, but not hard. As a result, the nail will enter the material by 3-4 mm
    , which will allow you not to hold it with your fingers and eliminate the possibility of hitting your fingers with a hammer. In next как забить гвоздь своими руками дома
    If, while driving, the nail begins to bend, then grab the bend with pliers and try to drive in further. If this does not help, it means that the surface was harder than the nail, and it needs to be pulled out and a dowel or a thicker nail driven in instead. To pull out a nail, use a nail puller or pliers; with the latter, you need to grasp the body of the nail well and, rotating clockwise and counterclockwise, slowly pull it out of the material. Using a nail puller, place a block of wood under it so that you do not damage the surface of the material. When driving small nails, use a hammer. A hammer is needed if during work you do not want to accidentally miss the hammer and damage the surface, be it drywall or wallpaper.
  • When fastening two materials, do not forget that the nail must enter the body of the lower part by 2/3 of its length. The same rule is used when driving nails into a wall. To install suspended structures, the nail must be driven in, slightly tilting its head towards the ceiling. This way, when loaded, the nail will stay better in the wall.
  • If you are installing a wooden floor, then drive the nails straight into the first board, and into each subsequent one slightly at an angle, deviating the head from the already nailed floorboard. As the nail enters the tree, it will pull each subsequent board toward the previous one, reducing the gap between them. This rule applies to the installation of any structures.