Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Boat folding patterns for beginners

A classic paper boat using the origami technique – the simplest option – is folded according to the following pattern:

  1. A rectangular sheet located vertically is folded in half.
  2. The resulting blank is placed with the fold point up, and both upper corners are bent to an imaginary center line vertically, so that a narrow unused strip remains at the bottom.

    Как сделать корабли из бумаги своими руками, с парусом. Пошаговая инструкция

  3. The bottom strip of the top layer of the workpiece is folded upward, then the rectangle is turned over to the other side and the second strip is folded.
  4. Using corner bends, the folded strips are fixed in one position.
  5. Then the workpiece is opened from the inside and folded into a square by placing its parts on top of each other so that the initial fold becomes the diagonal of the resulting square. After folding, the corners straighten.
  6. Now the top sheet of the resulting square piece, lying in the diamond position, is bent diagonally to match the opposite corners.
  7. The workpiece is turned over to the other side, then the same action is performed. At this stage, the square turns into an isosceles triangle.
  8. Next, the triangular blank is opened from the inside by combining opposite corners and again turns into a square.
  9. The ship unfolds from a square blank – for this, the upper corners are pulled in opposite directions at the same time.
  10. The middle straightens out, and a simple paper boat can be launched into a pond.

There is another option for folding a boat for beginners, it is the simplest, and as a result of five minutes of work you get a yacht:

  1. On a square sheet of paper of any color, you need to fold it horizontally diagonally.
  2. Now a vertical valley fold is performed.
  3. An imaginary line is drawn in the lower triangle, as shown in the diagram, along which the fold occurs.
  4. The bent part of the triangle is bent, returning to its original position. Once the folding technique is mastered, steps 3 and 4 can be simplified into one by simply folding the desired part of the triangle.
  5. Now, along the marked lines, you should make “valley” bends, carefully straightening the right angle, which is located below the marking.

    Как сделать корабли из бумаги своими руками, с парусом. Пошаговая инструкция

  6. Using glue, the 2 parts of the yacht are connected to each other, then the bottom and hull are carefully straightened so that the product becomes stable.

If you complicate the previous diagram a little, you might end up with an ocean liner:

  1. On a square sheet of paper of any color, you need to make 2 folds diagonally, thus outlining 4 triangles.
  2. Then you need to bend the upper corner of the square blank, arranged in a diamond shape, towards the center.
  3. Now the same corner is bent again, only in the opposite direction.
  4. And once again the corner, only this time smaller in volume, needs to be folded back towards itself. When the technique of folding the boat is mastered, steps 2-4 are simplified into one step, folding occurs with a triple zipper.
  5. Next, the left side of the workpiece is folded in such a way as to cover the right side.
  6. Now you need to mark an imaginary line, as shown in the diagram, for folding the lower parts of the workpiece into a “mountain”. Then very carefully straighten and bend the corner located below the line. After this, the parts of the workpiece indicated in the diagram need to be bent along the intended line “mountainwise”.

    Как сделать корабли из бумаги своими руками, с парусом. Пошаговая инструкция

  7. The bent corner is carefully smoothed out, and the workpiece is turned in the desired direction.

Double boat – catamaran

An ordinary boat is a completed stage, and have you also learned how to make a steamboat? Do you want to continue? Now you can master the assembly of the catamaran. The only materials you need are paper and scissors. First of all, cut out a square from an A4 sheet. Then, step by step, follow the step-by-step description, check the result with the pictures and remember that the clarity of the folds is the key to a neat and beautiful craft.

  1. Fold the square in half and unfold. You will be left with a fold line. Then fold each side in half towards the fold line.
  2. Rotate the resulting rectangle 90° and repeat the folding manipulations.
  3. Unfold the workpiece. It turns out to be divided into small squares. Now fold the opposite sides of the square towards the center again.
  4. Grasp the bottom corners of the sheet and move them apart. Fold 2 inner squares diagonally – you get a blank for one boat.
  5. Repeat these steps on the other side of the rectangle.
  6. Fold the layout in half and open it, giving it volume. The catamaran is ready to sail in search of adventure.

If you didn’t succeed in figuring out this scheme the first time, don’t despair. We offer you the second assembly method. It will be easy to master even for novice shipbuilders.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands


The wide base of catamarans makes them stable on the water. This is enough to prevent it from capsizing and drowning at the first breath of wind. So you can safely launch it in the nearest stream – and an ordinary walk will bring you new impressions.

How to make a paper boat with your own hands

There are probably no parents who are not familiar with the technology of making boats. But perhaps it has faded a little from your memory. Now that you have a preschool or primary school-aged child, it’s time to brush up on this activity. Make this wonderful spring craft with your child.

A paper boat is a great craft. This activity will help develop fine motor skills and is an excellent exercise in spatial thinking.

Among other things, you will receive an entertaining toy. And the baby will be able to play, inviting friends and relatives with him. There are a lot of game options, for example you can arrange a race or an expedition.

They can be made from colored paper, and can also be painted or painted. You can select a whole crew for the ship using small soldiers. If the weather outside is not very good, you can play by letting them swim in the bathtub. And at the dacha you can use a basin for this. In a word, this is an extremely exciting activity.

Recommendations for making a paper boat:

  1. By using single-sided colored paper, you will get a unique toy, since the boat will be partially painted in a certain color.
  2. A sailboat can be made using a regular toothpick, and a sail can be made from fabric, colored cardboard, foil, leaves, colored napkins and much more.
  3. This toy can be made using office paper. And so that the boat does not get too wet while floating, it can be made from a coated magazine sheet.
  4. Dipping a toy into melted wax or paraffin will make it waterproof.
  5. Using a white sheet, you can show your imagination – decorate and paint it in any color.

How to make a ship out of wood

We will need:

Sheet of paper, pencil, linden or birch board, jigsaw, hatchet, chisel, roll sticks, toothpicks, fabric for sails, PVA glue, Moment glue, file, sanding disc

So, let’s get started:

  1. From paper we cut out a rectangle 18 by 6 cm in the shape of a ship (like a top view).
  2. We trace this blank on a wooden board approximately 2 cm wide.
  3. We cut out two such parts with a regular or jigsaw.
  4. We sand one side of each part.
  5. We glue them together with PVA glue, fasten them with rubber bands for additional fixation, go through the seam with glue, and put a weight on top.
  6. While the glue dries, we will make the mast and other small parts.
  7. Take a board 15 cm long, about 1 cm wide, plan it with a knife, giving it the shape of a cylinder, and grind it with a file. This will be the mast. We make 3 of them.
  8. We retreat 3-4 cm from the bow of the ship and draw a line from the lower blank to the upper corner of the upper blank, it looks like an upturned bow of the ship.
  9. We saw off the excess material along this line, first on one side, then on the other.
  10. At the bottom of the boat, draw two lines along the length, departing 2.5 cm from the edges.
  11. Along these lines we cut off the excess material with a hatchet, thereby giving the bow of the ship a suitable shape.
  12. We sharpen the hatchet harder, removing excess material.
  13. We measure 4 cm from the stern of the ship, draw a line to the seam and saw it.
  14. The ship’s hull is ready, sand it on all sides.
  15. At the top of the blank, where the deck is supposed to be located, draw a rectangle.
  16. Take a chisel and make a recess along the lines of the rectangle.
  17. We make three holes on top of the ship.
  18. Take 3 masts. You can use chopsticks for eating rolls and sushi as an alternative to homemade masts made from a plank.
  19. We glue 4 toothpicks to each mast for the glue moment.
  20. We fix the masts to the ship’s hull using PVA glue.
  21. We cut out the sails from fabric (coarse fabric, such as burlap, will look great if you plan to paint the ship dark and varnish) and glue it onto PVA.
  22. We paint the ship with acrylic paints. Paint with light colors first, then dark ones. You don’t have to paint it, but coat it with a special wood varnish. It will be even more impressive.

The sailboat is ready. You won’t be ashamed to give it as a gift or leave it at home as an interior decoration.

How to fold a boat step by step

  1. To make a boat you will need a rectangular sheet of thick paper.
  2. It is better to place the sheet vertically in front of you.
  3. Taking its upper corners, you need to connect them with the opposite lower ones.
  4. Having aligned the upper and lower parts of the sheet, it remains to carefully smooth the fold line. Further in the process of work it will no longer work. This is how we got the blank for work. It is necessary to mark the middle on it.
  5. The workpiece is placed vertically in front of you. Its angles are aligned as in the first case. Having outlined and ironed the additional fold of the workpiece, you need to unfold it.
  6. Now it needs to be placed with the main fold up.
  7. During the preparation process, the stage of marking several guides of the working square was deliberately omitted. By slightly lifting the front part of the workpiece above the bottom, it is necessary to form an isosceles triangle by tucking the side elements of the folded sheet into the workpiece until they are aligned at the intended center. As a result, two strips of unused material were formed at the bottom.
  8. The strips must be bent to form a triangle. First, the corners of this strip remaining in free “floating” are bent to the opposite side, repeating the contours of the main triangle. After turning the workpiece over, you need to repeat the operation just performed with the second strip.
  9. You need to open the resulting cap and fold it so that the side fold lines are central. It should look like a rhombus.
  10. The lower (free) corners are bent upward. For the first one, you need to select a height. If the notebook sheet format was chosen as the material, then this corner should be 1 cm below the top of the workpiece. For A-4 paper format, the distance can be selected 1.5-2 cm. The line must be carefully smoothed. The workpiece is turned over; the guideline for bending the second corner is the bottom of the element on the opposite side.
  11. The side and center lines need to be moved again. The result is a rhombus with a “cut off” bottom edge.

Classic boat

We offer you the most common paper boat design. It is these sharp-nosed beauties that boldly plow the expanses of spring puddles and streams. Making them is a matter of a couple of minutes. And the pleasure of watching your own creation swim will delight not only the child.

  1. Fold the sheet in half along the wide side. Bend it again along the wide side to mark the middle.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  2. Fold the top corners towards the middle of the sheet. Achieve their complete combination.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  3. The lower edges of the sheet were left free. Lift them up, each on his own side. Iron the folds.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  4. Fold the corners of the strips to form a triangle.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  5. As a result of these manipulations, you should end up with a triangular pocket. Stick your hand into it and open it.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  6. Grab the middle of the base of the triangle and gently pull in different directions. The corners of the structure will align to form a square.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  7. The resulting square is two-layered. Bend each of its parts diagonally to the bottom corner of the square. Again you get a triangle with a pocket inside.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  8. Open the resulting pocket as in step 6. You should have a multi-layered square.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

  9. Take it by the upper corners and move them in opposite directions – the boat opens.

    Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands


    Following this step-by-step algorithm, even a schoolchild can assemble an origami boat correctly.

If you take a piece of scrap or colored paper for crafts, your creation will turn out especially bright and beautiful. Or you can make it just white and entrust a small designer to turn an ordinary ship into a masterpiece.

Colored paper boat

This most popular summer-themed craft can be created not only using the origami technique. This master class features such a bright sailboat!

Required materials:

  • colored half-cardboard in red, yellow and blue;
  • skewer;
  • glue;
  • scissors;
  • ruler;
  • marker;
  • pencil.

Create the frame of a sailboat. To do this, take blue half-cardboard and cut out two identical strips with dimensions of 18 x 2.5 cm. Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Using a ruler and pencil, divide each strip into three equal parts. We bend in those places.

Glue the two parts of the boat base together along the sides.

Next we will create a small part of the ship’s deck. We use blue half-cardboard again.

Cut out a small rectangle. We measure 1.5 cm from the sides for gluing.

Bend along vertical lines and glue the part into the middle of the ship between the bases.

Now we will prepare a wooden skewer and two pieces of yellow sheet of different lengths to create sails.

Create small holes in each rectangle. We insert a skewer through them.

Cut out a small square from a red sheet. Glue it to the deck. We make a small hole along the diameter of the wide part of the skewer. We insert it.

Now we cut out a beautiful flag from a red sheet that will flutter in the wind. Use a black marker to highlight the contour lines.

Glue the flag to the highest point of the sailboat.

Using a black marker we draw in the portholes and other important details on the paper boat.

A wonderful paper boat is ready for sea voyages! On the deck you can place small toys of pirates, sailors and the ship’s captain.

Making an applique – paper boat

Another craft option.

See a detailed master class on paper boat applique here.

A ship under turbo sails!

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

The famous documentary series “The Underwater Odyssey of the Cousteau Team” was filmed by the great French oceanographer in the 1960s and 1970s. Cousteau’s main ship was then converted from the British minesweeper Calypso. But in one of the subsequent films – “Rediscovery of the World” – another ship appeared, the yacht “Halcyone”.

Looking at her, many TV viewers asked themselves the question: what are these strange pipes installed on the yacht? Could these be boiler pipes or propulsion systems?

Imagine your amazement if you find out that these are SAILS… turbosails…

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

The Cousteau Foundation acquired the yacht Alcyone in 1985, and this ship was considered not so much as a research ship, but as a basis for studying the effectiveness of turbosails – the original ship propulsion system. And when, 11 years later, the legendary Calypso sank, Alkyone took its place as the main ship of the expedition (by the way, today Calypso is raised and in a semi-looted state stands in the port of Concarneau).

Actually, the turbosail was invented by Cousteau. Just like scuba gear, an underwater saucer and many other devices for exploring the depths of the sea and the surface of the World Ocean. The idea was born in the early 1980s and was to create the most environmentally friendly, but at the same time convenient and modern propulsion device for waterfowl. The use of wind power seemed to be the most promising area of ​​research. But here’s the problem: mankind invented the sail several thousand years ago, and what could be simpler and more logical?

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Of course, Cousteau and company understood that it was impossible to build a ship propelled solely by a sail. More precisely, perhaps, but its driving performance will be very mediocre and dependent on the vagaries of the weather and wind direction. Therefore, it was initially planned that the new “sail” would be only an auxiliary force used to help conventional diesel engines. At the same time, a turbosail would significantly reduce diesel fuel consumption, and in strong winds it could become the only propulsion device of the vessel. And the team of researchers looked to the past – to the invention of the German engineer Anton Flettner, a famous aircraft designer who made a serious contribution to shipbuilding.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

The turbosail is a hollow cylinder equipped with a special pump. The pump creates a vacuum on one side of the turbosail, pumping air into the sail, the outside air begins to flow around the turbosail at different speeds and the ship begins to move in a direction perpendicular to the air pressure. This is very reminiscent of the lift force acting on the wing of an airplane – the pressure is greater from below the wing and the airplane is pushed upward. The turbosail allows the ship to move against any wind, as long as there is enough pump power. Used as an auxiliary system for a conventional marine engine. Two turbosails installed on the ship of Cousteau’s team “Halcyon” allowed saving up to 50% of fuel.

Flettner rotor and Magnus effect

On September 16, 1922, Anton Flettner received a German patent for the so-called rotary vessel. And in October 1924, the experimental rotary ship Buckau left the slipways of the Friedrich Krupp shipbuilding company in Kiel. True, the schooner was not built from scratch: before the installation of Flettner rotors, it was an ordinary sailing vessel.

Flettner’s idea was to use the so-called Magnus effect, the essence of which is as follows: when an air (or liquid) flow flows around a rotating body, a force is generated perpendicular to the direction of the flow and acts on the body. The fact is that a rotating object creates a vortex motion around itself. On the side of the object where the direction of the vortex coincides with the direction of the liquid or gas flow, the speed of the medium increases, and on the opposite side it decreases. The pressure difference creates a transverse force directed from the side where the direction of rotation and the direction of flow are opposite, to the side where they coincide.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

“Flettner’s wind ship is on everyone’s lips thanks to unusually zealous newspaper propaganda,” wrote Louis Prandtl in his article about the development of the German engineer.

This effect was discovered in 1852 by the Berlin physicist Heinrich Magnus.

Magnus Effect

German aeronautical engineer and inventor Anton Flettner (1885–1961) went down in maritime history as the man who tried to replace sails. He had the opportunity to travel for a long time on a sailboat across the Atlantic and Indian oceans. Many sails were installed on the masts of sailing ships of that era. Sailing equipment was expensive, complex, and aerodynamically not very efficient. Constant dangers awaited the sailors, who, even during a storm, had to deal with sails at a height of 40–50 meters.

During the voyage, the young engineer had the idea to replace the sails, which required a lot of effort, with a simpler but effective device, the main propulsion of which would also be the wind. While thinking about this, he remembered the aerodynamic experiments conducted by his compatriot, the physicist Heinrich Gustav Magnus (1802–1870). They found that when the cylinder rotates in the air flow, a transverse force arises with a direction depending on the direction of rotation of the cylinder (Magnus effect).

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

One of his classic experiments went like this: “A brass cylinder could rotate between two points; rapid rotation was imparted to the cylinder, as in a top, by a cord. The rotating cylinder was placed in a frame, which, in turn, could easily rotate. This system was exposed to a strong stream of air using a small centrifugal pump. The cylinder deviated in a direction perpendicular to the air stream and to the cylinder axis, moreover, in the direction in which the directions of rotation and the stream were the same” (L. Prandtl “The Magnus Effect and the Wind Ship”, 1925).

A. Flettner immediately thought that the sails could be replaced by rotating cylinders installed on the ship.

It turns out that where the surface of the cylinder moves against the air flow, the wind speed decreases and the pressure increases. On the other side of the cylinder, the opposite is true – the air flow speed increases, and the pressure drops. This difference in pressure on different sides of the cylinder is the driving force that makes the ship move. This is the basic principle of operation of rotary equipment, which uses the force of the wind to propel the vessel. Everything is very simple, but only A. Flettner “did not pass by,” although the Magnus effect has been known for more than half a century.

He began to implement the plan in 1923 on a lake near Berlin. Actually, Flettner did a rather simple thing. He installed a paper cylinder-rotor about a meter high and 15 cm in diameter on a meter-long test boat, and adapted a clock mechanism to rotate it. And the boat sailed.

The captains of sailing ships mocked A. Flettner’s cylinders, which he wanted to replace the sails with. The inventor managed to interest wealthy patrons of the arts in his invention. In 1924, instead of three masts, two rotary cylinders were mounted on the 54-meter schooner Buckau. These cylinders were rotated by a 45 hp diesel generator.

The Bukau rotors were driven by electric motors. Actually, there was no difference in design from Magnus’s classical experiments. On the side where the rotor rotated towards the wind, an area of ​​high pressure was created, and on the opposite side, a region of low pressure. The resulting force moved the ship. Moreover, this force was approximately 50 times greater than the force of wind pressure on a stationary rotor!

This opened up enormous prospects for Flettner. Among other things, the area of ​​the rotor and its mass were several times smaller than the area of ​​the sail rig, which would provide equal driving force. The rotor was much easier to control, and it was quite cheap to produce. From above, Flettner covered the rotors with plate-like planes – this approximately doubled the driving force due to the correct orientation of the air flows relative to the rotor. The optimal height and diameter of the rotor for the Bukau were calculated by blowing a model of the future vessel in a wind tunnel.

IMGP5975

Cousteau turbosailer –
As of 2022, Alkyone is the only ship in the world with a Cousteau turbosail. The death of the great oceanographer in 1997 put an end to the construction of a second similar ship, Calypso II, and other shipbuilders are afraid of the unusual design…

The Flettner rotor performed excellently. Unlike a conventional sailing ship, a rotary ship was practically not afraid of bad weather and strong side winds; it could easily sail on alternating tacks at an angle of 25º to the headwind (for a conventional sail the limit is about 45º). Two cylindrical rotors (height 13.1 m, diameter 1.5 m) made it possible to perfectly balance the vessel – it turned out to be more stable than the sailboat that the Bukau was before perestroika. Tests were carried out in calm conditions, in storms, and with deliberate overload – and no serious deficiencies were identified. The most advantageous direction for the movement of the ship was the direction of the wind exactly perpendicular to the axis of the ship, and the direction of movement (forward or backward) was determined by the direction of rotation of the rotors.

In mid-February 1925, the schooner Buckau, equipped with Flettner rotors instead of sails, left Danzig (now Gdansk) for Scotland. The weather was bad, and most sailing ships did not dare leave the ports. In the North Sea, the Buckau had a serious battle with strong winds and large waves, but the schooner heeled less than other sailing ships encountered.

During this voyage, it was not necessary to call crew members on deck to change sails depending on the strength or direction of the wind. All that was needed was one watch navigator, who, without leaving the wheelhouse, could control the activities of the rotors. Previously, the crew of a three-masted schooner consisted of at least 20 sailors; after it was converted into a rotary ship, 10 people were enough.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

In the same year, the shipyard laid down its second rotary ship – the mighty cargo liner Barbara, driven by three 17-meter rotors. At the same time, one small motor with a power of only 35 hp was enough for each rotor. (at a maximum rotation speed of each rotor of 160 rpm)! The thrust of the rotors was equivalent to the thrust of a screw propeller coupled with a conventional ship diesel engine with a power of about 1000 hp. However, diesel was also present on the ship: in addition to the rotors, it drove the propeller (which remained the only propulsion device in case of calm weather).

Promising experiences prompted the shipping company Rob. M. Sloman” from Hamburg in 1926 to build the ship “Barbara”. It was planned in advance to equip it with turbosails – Flettner rotors. Three rotors with a height of about 17 m were mounted on a vessel with a length of 90 m and a width of 13 m.

“Barbara”, as planned, successfully transported fruit from Italy to Hamburg for some time. Approximately 30–40% of the voyage was powered by the wind. With a wind of 4–6 points, “Barbara” developed a speed of 13 knots.

The plan was to test the rotary vessel on longer voyages in the Atlantic Ocean.

But in the late 1920s the Great Depression struck. In 1929, the charter company refused to continue leasing the Barbara and she was sold. The new owner removed the rotors and refitted the ship according to the traditional design. Still, the rotor was inferior to screw propellers in combination with a conventional diesel power plant due to its dependence on the wind and certain limitations on power and speed. Flettner turned to more advanced research, and the Baden-Baden eventually sank during a storm in the Caribbean in 1931.

And they forgot about rotor sails for a long time…

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

The beginning of rotary ships seemed to be quite successful, but they were not developed and were forgotten for a long time. Why? Firstly, the “father” of rotary ships, A. Flettner, plunged into the creation of helicopters and ceased to be interested in maritime transport. Secondly, despite all their advantages, rotary ships have remained sailing ships with their inherent disadvantages, the main one of which is dependence on the wind.

Flettner rotors became interested again in the 80s of the twentieth century, when scientists began to propose various measures to mitigate climate warming, reduce pollution, and more rational fuel consumption. One of the first to remember them was the explorer of the depths, the Frenchman Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1910–1997). To test the operation of the turbosail system and reduce the consumption of increasingly expensive fuel, the two-masted catamaran “Alcyone” (Alcyone is the daughter of the wind god Aeolus) was converted into a rotary vessel. Having set sail in 1985, he visited Canada and America, rounded Cape Horn, and around Australia and Indonesia, Madagascar and South Africa. He was transferred to the Caspian Sea, where he sailed for three months, doing various research. Alcyone still uses two different propulsion systems – two diesel engines and two turbo sails.

Cousteau turbosail

Sailboats were also built throughout the 20th century. In modern ships of this type, the sails are furled using electric motors, and new materials make the design significantly lighter. But a sailboat is a sailboat, and the idea of ​​using wind energy in a radically new way has been in the air since the time of Flettner. And it was picked up by the tireless adventurer and explorer Jacques-Yves Cousteau.

On December 23, 1986, after the Halcyone mentioned at the beginning of the article was launched, Cousteau and his colleagues Lucien Malavard and Bertrand Charrier received joint patent No. US4630997 for “a device that creates force through the use of a moving fluid or gas.” The general description is as follows: “The device is placed in an environment moving in a certain direction; in this case, a force arises acting in a direction perpendicular to the first. The device avoids the use of massive sails, in which the driving force is proportional to the sail area.” What is the difference between a Cousteau turbosail and a Flettner rotor sail?

In cross section, the turbosail is something like an elongated drop, rounded at the sharp end. On the sides of the “drop” there are air intake grilles, through one of which (depending on the need to move forward or backward) air is sucked out. To ensure maximum effective suction of wind into the air intake, a small fan driven by an electric motor is installed on the turbosail.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

It artificially increases the speed of air movement on the leeward side of the sail, sucking in the air stream at the moment of its separation from the plane of the turbosail. This creates a vacuum on one side of the turbosail, while simultaneously preventing the formation of turbulent vortices. And then the Magnus effect acts: rarefaction on one side, as a result – a lateral force capable of causing the ship to move. Actually, a turbosail is an aircraft wing placed vertically; at least the principle of creating a driving force is similar to the principle of creating an aircraft lift. To ensure that the turbosail is always facing the most advantageous side to the wind, it is equipped with special sensors and installed on a turntable. By the way, Cousteau’s patent implies that air can be sucked out from inside the turbosail not only by a fan, but also, for example, by an air pump – thus Cousteau closed the gate for subsequent “inventors.”

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Actually, Cousteau first tested a prototype turbosail on the catamaran “Windmill” (Moulin à Vent) in 1981. The catamaran’s largest successful voyage was from Tangier (Morocco) to New York under the supervision of a larger expedition ship.

And in April 1985, the Halcyone, the first full-fledged ship equipped with turbosails, was launched in the port of La Rochelle. Now she is still on the move and today is the flagship (and, in fact, the only large ship) of the Cousteau team flotilla. The turbosails on it do not serve as the only propulsion, but they help the usual coupling of two diesel engines and several propellers (which, by the way, allows you to reduce fuel consumption by about a third). If the great oceanographer had been alive, he would probably have built several more similar ships, but the enthusiasm of his associates noticeably waned after Cousteau left.

Shortly before his death in 1997, Cousteau was actively working on the project of the Calypso II vessel with a turbosail, but did not have time to complete it. According to the latest data, in the winter of 2022, Alkyone was in the port of Kaen and was waiting for a new expedition.

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And again Flettner

Today, attempts are being made to revive Flettner’s idea and make rotor sails widespread. For example, the famous Hamburg company Blohm Voss, after the oil crisis of 1973, began active development of a rotary tanker, but by 1986, economic factors closed this project. Then there was a whole series of amateur designs.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

In 2007, students at the University of Flensburg built a catamaran powered by a rotor sail (Uni-cat Flensburg).

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

In 2022, the third ship in history with rotor sails appeared – the E-Ship1 heavy-duty truck, which was built for Enercon, one of the largest manufacturers of wind turbines in the world. On July 6, 2022, the ship was launched for the first time and made a short voyage from Emden to Bremerhaven. And already in August he set off on his first working voyage to Ireland with a load of nine wind generators. The vessel is equipped with four Flettner rotors and, of course, a traditional propulsion system in case of calm weather and for additional power. Still, rotor sails serve only as auxiliary propulsion: for a 130-meter truck, their power is not enough to develop the proper speed. The engines are powered by nine Mitsubishi power units, and the rotors are driven by a Siemens steam turbine that uses exhaust gas energy. Rotor sails can save 30 to 40% of fuel at a speed of 16 knots.

But Cousteau’s turbosail still remains in some oblivion: Alkyone is currently the only full-size ship with this type of propulsion. The experience of German shipbuilders will show whether it makes sense to further develop the theme of sails powered by the Magnus effect. The main thing is to find an economic justification for this and prove its effectiveness. And then, you see, all world shipping will switch to the principle that a talented German scientist described more than 150 years ago.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

In the North Sea in 2022, a strange ship “E-Ship 1” could be seen. On its upper deck there are four tall round chimneys, but smoke never billows from them. These are the so-called Flettner rotors, which replaced traditional sails.

The world’s largest manufacturer of wind power plants, Enercon, launched a 130-meter, 22-meter-wide rotary vessel, which was later named “E-Ship 1,” at the Lindenau shipyard in Kiel on August 2, 2022. It was then successfully tested in the North and Mediterranean seas, and is currently transporting wind generators from Germany, where they are produced, to other European countries. It reaches a speed of 17 knots (32 km/h), simultaneously transports more than 9 thousand tons of cargo, its crew is 15 people.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Singapore-based shipbuilding company Wind Again, which is engaged in the creation of technologies to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, proposes to install specially designed Flettner rotors (folding) on ​​tankers and cargo ships. They will reduce fuel consumption by 30–40% and will pay for themselves in 3–5 years.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Finnish marine engineering company Wartsila is already planning to install turbosails on cruise ferries. This is due to the desire of the Finnish ferry operator Viking Line to reduce fuel consumption and environmental pollution.

The use of Flettner rotors on pleasure boats is being studied by the University of Flensburg (Germany). Rising oil prices and an alarming warming climate appear to be creating favorable conditions for the return of wind turbines.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Designed by John Marples, Cloudia is a rebuilt Searunner 34 trimaran. The yacht underwent its first tests in February 2008 in Fort Pierce, Florida, USA, and its creation was funded by the Discovery TV channel. Claudia proved to be incredibly maneuverable: it stopped and reversed in a matter of seconds, and moved freely at an angle of about 15° to the wind. The noticeable improvement in performance compared to the traditional Flettner rotor is due to the additional transverse discs installed on the front and rear rotors of the trimaran.

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

Paper boat: 10 options, 120 photos on how to make paper ships and boats with your own hands

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sources

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sources

http://www.popmech.ru/article/8606-to-li-machta-to-li-parus/

http://www.jura24.lt/ru/novosti/raznoje/-369138

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And here’s another very relevant reminder of The world’s first cargo ship with a kite-shaped propulsion

Well, let’s remember who he is Vladimir Yurkevich – the creator of the record
“Normandy”

. And also about a few interesting yachts: The fastest sailboat in the world

and Maltese Falcon

Origami boat

Do you want a boat like this? It’s actually very easy! All you need is a square sheet of paper and 10-12 minutes of free time.

This cute origami is perfect for crafts with children of primary and secondary school age.

Materials and tools:

  • square sheet 15-18 cm;
  • scissors.

Cut out a 4 square from an A sheet of paper.

Fold in half horizontally.

Expand. Fold one half of the sheet to the center fold and open.

Also fold the second half of the sheet towards the center line.

Gently iron the fold, then lift the paper and place it on the next, third fold. Make a neat bend.

Place the craft vertically.

Fold the top right corner to a vertical crease.

Also fold the upper left corner towards the vertical fold.

Fold the left corner again. Gently press the fold with your fingers.

On the right side, also fold the corner forward one more time.

Change position. Fold the entire bottom edge towards the horizontal center line.

Change position again. Fold the lower right corner to the horizontal center line.

Fold down the entire top part in the origami area where you are currently working.

Turn over to the other side.

Using an accordion fold the paper over the area to be worked twice. You should stop exactly on the center line of your square.

Place the workpiece in front of you so that all the formed bends are at the bottom on the right side.

Fold the upper left corner to the previously made vertical fold.

Also fold the upper right corner towards the vertical fold.

Fold the corner again on the top right side, and again on the top left side.

Change position. On the opposite side, fold the bottom corner to the middle line.

Also fold the top side down towards the middle line.

Fold the entire top part down along the middle line.

Open one side.

Fold the corner symmetrically to the corner at the back of the craft. Return the paper to its place.

On the other side, also open one fold. Fold the second corner symmetrically to the existing corner.

Close the paper. Open the craft in the middle.

DIY origami paper boat is ready!

Origami sailboat

To make a ship decorated with two sails, you will need a square sheet of single-sided colored paper. Thanks to just such a sheet, the result is a ship with sides painted the same color and snow-white sails.

Sailboat manufacturing process:

  1. First, you need to make bends on the square workpiece vertically and then horizontally. You should end up with a large square, divided by folds into 4 small squares. Now the same action should be done diagonally.

    Как сделать корабли из бумаги своими руками, с парусом. Пошаговая инструкция

  2. Next, you need to place the workpiece in front of you in a diamond shape, the white side up, and bend the “valley” of 2 opposite corners (upper and lower) into triangles towards the center. The result is a design in the form of 2 triangles, on either side of which there are 2 rhombuses.
  3. Then a bend is formed horizontally in the resulting workpiece.
  4. When returning the structure to its original state, it is necessary to simultaneously fold the left rhombus so that its horizontal diagonal moves to a vertical position and then bends inward. Thus, the left diamond should be reshaped into a triangle, fixed by a fold between the upper and lower rectangle.
  5. Now we have a parallelogram with a triangle on the left. Its right corner must be folded with the diagonal of the former rhombus inward. You should get a blank sketched in point 6 of the diagram, which represents 2 triangles – upper and lower, with the upper one consisting of 2 small ones.
  6. The small triangle on the left is a large sail, and the right one needs to be reshaped into a small sail. To do this, it should be bent with a zipper, as shown in paragraphs 6-7 of the diagram.

    Как сделать корабли из бумаги своими руками, с парусом. Пошаговая инструкция

  7. The zipper fold needs to be hidden between the sides of the future sailboat. And below, along an imaginary line, it is necessary to make “mountainous” bends into the structure to form the bottom of the vessel. At the end, the bottom must be carefully straightened so that the sailboat floats better.