Paper alphabet, or How to decipher the technical characteristics of office paper – Kantsman

What paper grades mean

S/S – economy class paper in terms of performance and the most common due to its price. All the characteristics here are brought to the level of “in principle, you can print on it.” Not recommended for inkjet, color laser and duplex printing. Normal for primary and internal documentation, drafts or one-time consumable documents, such as an invoice from a pizzeria.

V/V – average in all respects and price. This is the kind of paper I recommend using in offices. With a small difference in price with the previous class, all technical characteristics are much better. I don’t recommend it for inkjet printing, however, the paper has a different purpose.

It tolerates duplex and high-speed printing perfectly and is also suitable for color laser printing. B-class paper is the choice of thrifty buyers who do not want to burn their nerves due to damaged documents, waste time due to jammed paper and spend money on repairing office equipment.

A/A – the highest class of office paper. I recommend this paper to gentlemen who know a lot about office equipment. Regardless of the ruble exchange rate overboard, it costs twice as much as C-class paper. And with good reason. I recommend it for all types of office printing: double-sided, high-speed, laser, inkjet, it’s all the same.

Almost anything can be printed on this paper. I recommend it for regular use, but the budget decides here, because the A-class is pure show-off. Documents are printed on such paper that the recipient’s eye must catch on in order to make the necessary impression. And if you also put it in a tight and smooth file, then wow. I will cover this topic a little lower.

D – no idea what it is, and why paper of this class was introduced into the new GOST. Judging by the characteristics written in it, this is stillborn paper for tenders. I feel sorry for its users and their equipment.

WHO reported that coronavirus particles linger in the air. let’s figure out what this means

— Coronavirus can be transmitted by air, remaining in the air for some time, depending on humidity and temperature, the World Health Organization said in an official statement. At the same time, WHO refers to the results of new studies.

“As we know, this virus is transmitted mainly through droplets of liquid from a sick person when coughing and sneezing,” recalled Maria van Kerkhove, head of the WHO emergency diseases unit. “However, when you perform procedures that lead to the formation of an aerosol, say, in a medical facility (for example, inhalation procedures. – Ed.), a suspension of viral particles is formed.

And they remain in the air for some time.” Therefore, it is important that medical personnel take extra precautions when working with patients and performing such procedures, Dr. Kerkhove emphasized. In such situations, doctors are recommended to wear N95 respirators, which can trap up to 95% of small droplets and aerosol particles in the air.

0.1 micron (micrometer) is how many meters?

mikrón – small), a submultiple unit of length equal to 10-6m, or 10-3mm. Designations: mk, m. The name M. was canceled by the decision of the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1967), and this unit …


– 1969-1978

Micron. (from the Greek mikroV – mikros – small). A unit of length equal to one 1,000,000th of a meter. It is used to measure wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared and, sometimes, visible regions of the spectrum.

Astronomical glossary “Astronet”

MICRON (from Greek

mikron – small) – an obsolete name for a unit of length equal to 10-6 m; denoted mk, m. See micrometer.

Large encyclopedic dictionary


FED-Mikron is a Soviet scale half-format camera, produced from 1968 to 1985 at the Kharkov Machine-Building Plant.

The only Soviet automatic scale half-format camera loaded with standard cassettes.


FED-Mikron-2 – Soviet rangefinder camera.

Produced by the Kharkov production machine-building association “FED” from 1978 to 1986. In total, about 35 thousand pieces were produced.

NIIME and Micron

JSC NIIME and Mikron is a Russian company, one of the largest manufacturers of integrated circuits in Eastern Europe. Founded on March 9, 1964 as the Research Institute of Molecular Electronics (NIIME), under which it was created on February 1, 1967.

NIIME and Mikron ((JSC NIIME and Mikron) is a Russian company, one of the largest manufacturers of integrated circuits in Eastern Europe.

Founded on March 9, 1964 as the Research Institute of Molecular Electronics (NIIME)…

Russian language


Morpheme-spelling dictionary.

– 2002

4-vector current density

This designation from the theory of relativity is intended to generalize the phenomenon of density to the space-time continuum, operating in four dimensions. Such a four-vector includes a three-vector expression of the current density (scalar quantity) and the volumetric electric charge density. The use of a four-vector makes it possible to formulate electrodynamic equations in a covariant manner.

The quantity under consideration is necessary to describe the concentration and uniformity of distribution of charged microparticles over a conductor material in which one or another form of electric current exists. When operating with expressions containing a quantity, you must not forget about its scalarity.

Ecf (elemental chlorine free) and tcf (totally chlorine free)

Собрал на одной картинке все варианты изображения логотипов Elemental Chlorine Paper и Totally Chlorine Paper. Некоторые брать не стал, очень уж плохого качества они были.
ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) logos

Whitening paper without elemental chlorine and without it at all. This bleaching reduces the formation of reaction byproducts that are hazardous to the environment. Z – care! I talked about this in detail in this article; I see no point in repeating myself.

Paper dust allergy – not paper dust

After the publication of the first version of the article, a question came from a reader: will high-quality paper save you from allergies to paper dust? I had to figure this out too. My answer: no, it won’t save you, because it’s not about paper at all, certainly not about modern paper. Here, the formation of dust is so small that it can only damage the printer’s mechanisms, but not the human body.

In short, the principle “everything is good in moderation” works with physical characteristics. That is, optimally selected indicators of density, thickness and rigidity of the paper sheet guarantee excellent running characteristics.

Скан расширенных технических характеристик бумаги Xerox Perfect Print, Xerox, Россия, лист второй из двух
Extended technical specifications using the example of Xerox Perfect Print paper, Russia, sheet 2/2


  • Units: percentage (%).


  • 146–170% depending on the grade of paper,


  • class C/C: 150%,
  • I/O class: 160%,
  • class A/A: 165%.

There are several standards for measuring whiteness according to different GOSTs. Many of them are already outdated, but periodically appear in publications and on websites. I’ll tell you about the most popular GOST; usually its indicators are written on packs. That’s exactly what they say: “whiteness according to CIE”.

Look: “Snegurochka”, SvetoCopy Classic, Xerox Performer and Perfect Print, “Komusa Standard” have a whiteness of 146% according to the CIE standard. Strange, isn’t it? After all, logically the maximum is 100%. And again viva la marketers! What does a person need? Everything, yes more.

In a good way, there should be a heavy and boring sidebar about what whiteness is, how it is measured and what happens in paper production. It would not be a sidebar, but a whole article. But I previously wrote a cool article about production. I also read the theory, interrogated experts, figured it out and wrote a greatly abbreviated version. You’re welcome!

Acid-free paper

  • Standard: pH≥ 7,
  • Standard: pH≥ 7.

Fan fiction written on it will last 500, or even 1000 years, if you buy more expensive ones. This is what I understand as a deadline! URGENT! Such results are obtained due to the complete removal of wood pulp and, in fact, lignin from paper. This paper consists of 100% cellulose, without impurities.

Complete removal of wood pulp and lignin provides an almost 100% guarantee that the paper will retain its physical properties and chemical composition unchanged for several hundred years. And “almost” – because even this is not enough. Call right now and you will receive a juicer as a gift! No not like this.

In order for paper to last for hundreds of years, it must be treated with a weak alkaline solution, such as calcium or magnesium bicarbonate. It neutralizes the natural acids of wood pulp – they can appear when adding paper sizing. The paper is treated with an alkaline solution with interest so that it forms a so-called alkaline reserve.

In a good way, any paper for creativity should be acid-free. Of course, we are talking about professional creativity, such as fine art or writing fan fiction based on anime series for posterity. However, a survey of manufacturers showed that some of them interpret the term “acid-free paper” in their own way, and it doesn’t matter what they say in your GOST standards.

They believe that to be considered acid-free, it is enough to make paper without using acid, and use calcium carbonate as an acid buffer (alkaline reserve) – and that’s all. Unfortunately, this approach does not guarantee the safety of your masterpieces for hundreds of years to come. But you are unlikely to check this.

But there is a way out!

Call right now and you will receive a juicer as a gift!

How many microns are contained in 1 mm

A linear meter of film with a density of 80 microns should weigh 210 grams, with a density of 100 microns – 260 grams, with a density of 120 microns – 320 g, 150 microns – 400 g, 200 microns – 530 g. (Calculations are presented for a standard width of one and a half meters, “sleeve”).

Let’s count. If, for example, you buy ten linear meters with a “declared” density of 150 microns, then the total weight of the purchase should be four kilograms (10X400 = 4000g).


This term has other meanings, see Micrometer (meanings).

The request for “Mikron” is redirected here; see also other meanings.


(Russian designation: µm, international: µm; from the Greek μικρός “small” μέτρον “measure, measurement”) – a subunit of length in the International System of Units (SI). Equal to one millionth of a meter (10−6 meters or 10−3 millimeters): 1 µm = 0.001 mm = 0.0001 cm = 0.000001 m.


  • Units: percent (%)

It is normal if the paper’s moisture content is in the range of 3.7 to 5.3%, there cannot be an ideal here. Otherwise, the toner will not seal well on the sheet and will fall off, causing images and text to be blurry and unclear, and paper jams in the printer.

Previously, this information was printed directly on the embalm of packs of paper. For some unknown reason they stopped doing this, as if the paper had become better. After you or the delivery service have delivered the paper to the office, it must rest for another day before use to reach the same temperature and humidity as the environment (this is especially true in winter).

This often happens: we deliver paper to a client, and 15 minutes later he calls the operator and squeals that our paper is fake. They say it was better before, but now the printer tears the paper, crumples it and grabs several sheets at a time. We explain: she needs to rest, try tomorrow. If it’s the same, we’ll take it or exchange it. For this reason, we never went to exchange.

GOST R 57641-2022 and GOST R 58106-2022

These are standards that regulate the technical characteristics of paper and its classification. At the time of publication of the article, a unique situation had developed in Russia: two existing GOSTs and two largest paper producers in the country. Moreover, the first manufacturer certified its products according to the latest GOST, but the second did not and now advocates its abolition.

In GOST 2022, there are only three grades of paper: A, B and C; in GOST 2022 there are already six: A, B, B, C, C and D. All these are the machinations of those very marketers who just want to increase sales, and the rest is garbage. The user’s job is to choose the appropriate paper based on its technical characteristics, and not on the paper’s contrived class. After all, the letters themselves do not mean anything; what is more important is what characteristics are hidden behind them.

At the time of publication of the article, information appeared that GOST R 58106-2022 was cancelled.

Shosh, let’s go find out.

GOST R ISO 9706-2000 (ISO 9706-2000)

This is a standard that means the paper is suitable for long-term storage. And this, in turn, means that if storage standards are observed – certain temperatures, humidity, lighting – it will retain its properties without significant changes for about 100-150 years, or even more, if you’re lucky.

The funny thing is that the latest paper production technologies are not even twenty years old and are constantly being improved. Accordingly, manufacturers do not have the opportunity to verify the fact that paper was stored in combat conditions. Therefore, they conducted laboratory experiments, artificially aged the paper and, based on the results obtained, assumed something like: well, yes, it will last about 150 years. Maybe. But it is not exactly.

But if you want to ensure that your Harry Potter fanfiction is read by posterity, take a look at the following paper testimonial.

What is it for

The micron indicator is important when we want to know exactly what load the packages are designed for. The lower the indicator, the less load the package can withstand, and, conversely, the higher the micron, the higher its carrying capacity.

  • 5-10 microns – bags for packaging fruits, vegetables, groceries and dry goods, light, usually up to 1-2 kg, mostly without handles, there are options for a small T-shirt, usually made in red colors, it has handles.
  • 10-16 microns – bags with a weight also small, 1-4 kg, depending on the selected density, small sizes, smaller than ordinary store bags from chains.
  • 18-20 microns – bags that can usually be found in stores. If chain stores offer a choice of packages, then usually the thinnest package is of this density. 4-5 kg ​​usually withstands.
  • 20-30 microns – optimal density bags for ordinary, “shop” needs. To give you an idea, Fa printed bags, which have been widely used for many years, have a density of 25-30 microns. 5-10 kg if there are no sharp objects inside, the package can withstand.
  • Bags with a density of 35, 40, 45 microns are usually used for carrying auto parts or building materials.

It is important to know that the strength of the bag depends not only on the thickness, but also on the type of film. The above-described “rustling” bags are made of HDPE film – low-density polyethylene. With the same film thickness, a HDPE film package can withstand more weight than a LDPE film package, but cannot withstand sharp parts inside.

Other physical characteristics

In addition to the basic ones, paper also has other mechanical characteristics, for example, dustiness, dirtiness, ash content and resistance to plucking. I talked about dustiness earlier, here, but I’ll stay a little longer.


  • Units: millinewton per meter (mN/m),


  • In the longitudinal direction: 110–160 mN/m,
  • Transverse: 50–70 mN/m.


  • In the longitudinal direction: 125–140 mN/m,
  • Transverse: 55–60 mN/m.

Stiffness is the resistance to bending force. This characteristic depends on the previous one. As a rule, the thicker the sheet, the stiffer it is. However, if it is “oaky”, it will not be able to normally go through the paper feed path with all its bends and will get stuck.

Meaning of the word micron

I moved a little, a micron: no, not a micron – an angstrom, but even this little bit made me dizzy.

Somewhere around 1965 it was already possible to say that in such and such transverse convolutions of such and such a section of the cerebral cortex with an area of ​​so many microns lies the intended trip to the Ardennes, and in the fifth gyrus – the tenth field with an area of 20 microns – football player Abe scored a goal.

Both rods and cones are very small and are only visible at 150–200x magnification under a microscope: rods are about 2 microns (0.002 mm) thick, and cones are 6–7 microns.

It must be said that linear measures are measured with terrifying accuracy; microns and even parts of microns are measured (a micron is a thousandth of a millimeter).

Neither a thousandth of a millimeter – a micron, nor a millimicron, which is a thousand times smaller than a micron, is suitable for such measurements.

The carbide grain diameter of S30V steel, for example, averages 4 microns, ATS-34 steel is about 25 microns, and D2 is about 50.

She lies in her fragile shelter and hears how micron by micron the station’s armor gives way, hears its creak, low, at the very threshold of human perception.

For example, experienced grinders can distinguish gaps of 0.6 microns, while a person can usually notice a gap of 10 microns.

And imagine our surprise when the laboratory told us that the thickness of the layer is not nanometers or even microns, but hundreds of microns!

A drop of theory

Light is electromagnetic waves emitted by a source. These waves are of different lengths, and people perceive them partially. We also do not see infrared and ultraviolet radiation. The human eye reads waves reflected from objects and turns them into shapes and colors. Different objects reflect waves in different ways: some well, others poorly, and others partially.

Science has proven that each color has its own wavelength. The reflection or absorption of a frequency is perceived by the brain as a corresponding color. When an object uniformly reflects all waves equally, we see white, and when completely absorbed, we see black.

Since childhood, we know: if you mix yellow with blue, you get green. All this is coloristics – the science of color, Oswald’s color wheel will help you.

It shows that opposite colors cancel each other out. So, red neutralizes green, blue neutralizes orange, and then in a circle: yellow neutralizes violet, and green neutralizes red. This circle is actively used by hairdressers to neutralize unwanted shades when dyeing hair.

The same parsley with paper: its whiteness depends on the components included in the composition. One of them is lignin, I talked about it in previous articles, its color ranges from light cream to brown. If the paper is not bleached, it will turn brown, then it will be used to make kraft paper and cardboard.

Remember, they used to use blue dye to whiten clothes? The same principle applies to paper.

For a white sheet to be perceived this way, it must simultaneously reflect the total number of electromagnetic waves across its entire plane. To do this, they use the same blue additives, including fluorescent ones, which neutralize the yellow color. They reflect a larger number of rays hitting the sheet.


This indicator is not stated in the regular or extended technical characteristics of the paper, and there is not a word about it on the embalage either. However, it directly affects its shelf life. Depending on the production technology, paper may contain a certain amount of so-called free acid.

It’s all about lignin, which remains in the paper after bleaching. There is very little lignin, but it reacts to temperature, light, oxygen and moisture and breaks down, releasing acid. It is harmless to people and equipment, but in the long run it harms the paper itself.

That is, some four or five generations (one generation = 30 years, Seryozha) and that’s it, your fanfictions are gone.

But there is a way out!

Paper grades

  • Types: D, S, S, B, V, A,
  • Ideally: A/A.

The first thing that is thrust under the buyer’s nose when he chooses paper is its grade.

This is an exclusively Russian invention, which has already been enshrined in the new GOSTs R 57641-2022 and R 58106-2022. Marketers – well done! Over the past couple of years, there has been an incredible variety of paper grades, from economy to premium: D, C, C, B, B, A, A.

I remember at the beginning of my clerical career, in 2003, there were only three classes. But the same marketers are not asleep, and now “Snegurochka”, which was once tightly seated in economy class, has improved several characteristics and began to compare favorably with its classmates.

Color Vision Trap

Often people who are not familiar with paper bleaching technology fall into this trap. A similar situation happened at my work.

New paper has arrived. We ordered ourselves one test box. We always do this. Employees immediately came running to compare it with the one that was before. They look at it and say: “Look, the new paper is grayer than the old one.” They put two sheets of paper on the table and ask them to check if this is true.

I take the sheets to the dining room and put them on the windowsill, where the sun shines directly. I ask the employees: “Which paper is whiter now?” They answer: “Now the new paper seems whiter.” Moreover, I walked around the office and interviewed everyone who came along the way – opinions were divided.

Mechanical type micrometer

In most cases, mechanical micrometers are used for measurements. Its device consists of a handle and a recess, which houses the part that needs to be measured. It is a semicircle with a stand on which the micrometer screw is directed.

The handle must be adjusted to close the screw. When they close around the part being measured, they begin to rotate the ratchet for adjustment. After this, you can take readings on the scales that are applied to the drum and stem of the micrometer.

Read here: What is an anemometer – what does it measure and how is the analog and digital device used

To record measured data or compare it with another part, some micrometers are equipped with a locking mechanism.

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A few words about ecology

By purchasing premium paper, you are investing in the environment. I agree, it sounds strange. However, every year its production becomes more advanced. Manufacturers are investing enormous amounts of money in developing the latest technologies for processing wood and paper pulp, methods for bleaching paper, reducing energy and water consumption, and reducing harmful emissions into the environment.

And first of all, all this is tested and implemented in the production of high-quality paper. Conventionally, with your money you give a signal to the manufacturer that you choose the environment.

In general, choose your paper wisely and keep this article in mind.

Don’t switch!


  • Units: grams per square meter, (g/m²),
  • Normal: 72–80 g/m²,
  • Ideally: 80 g/m².

The standard for office paper in Russia is 80 g/m². This is the mass of a sheet with an area of ​​one square meter. Even simpler: this is how much a sheet of paper measuring one meter by meter should weigh.

Interesting: for some countries, for example Brazil, the standard paper weight is 75 g/m². In Russia, the gold standard is considered to be a density of 80 g/m², and all subsequent characteristics depend on it.

Since 2022 – the time of writing this article – paper with a density of 70 and 75 g/m² has appeared on official sale, and these are only the first signs. Of course, density is an important qualitative and quantitative characteristic. But it only shows how much of this very paper is contained in the paper, sorry for the pun.

And then fillers and production technology get down to business. The physical characteristics of the sheet depend on it: for example, with different densities, the thickness of the paper sheet can be the same, the question is its looseness, the quality of the fillers and the number of runs of the paper web through the calenders. As a result, density is important only in combination with other running characteristics, which I will discuss below.

Running characteristics are the physical properties of a paper sheet that in one way or another affect its passage through the printer components.

Concept of a nanometer

A nanometer is a unit of length. Many people, due to the recent rapid development of nanotechnology, confuse this concept with a small body called a nanoobject. No, this is not an object, but a measure of distance in space. The word “nanometer” itself has Greek roots. It consists of two parts: nano – from Greek. “dwarf” and meter – a unit of measurement.

In the SI system, the word “nano-” is a prefix that can be used before absolutely any physical unit of measurement. For example, nanokilogram, nanocandela and so on. This prefix means that the value to which it is applied needs to be reduced by 9 orders of magnitude.

A nanometer is one billionth of a meter, that is, 1 nm = 10-9 m. From this ratio it turns out that 1 meter contains 109 (billion) nanometers. Knowing that 1 millimeter is 1000 times smaller than a meter, we find that a nanometer in millimeters will be written as 1 nm = 10-6 mm. This means that a nanometer is a million times smaller than a millimeter.

Another small distance unit that is closest to the nanometer is the angstrom. A nanometer is 10 times larger than it.

Explanation of lightweight paper

Returning to paper with a density of 70–75 g/m², which I wrote about at the beginning of the article. They don’t make such paper in Russia yet; it’s all imported. Now its main supplying countries are Finland, Portugal and that same Brazil. Shtosh, I ran this paper on all the printers available to me and this is what I want to say.

Buying such paper is a pure lottery – it is unknown how the technology will react to it. My old printers, which are 5-7 years old, genuinely don’t care what they print on, they didn’t even notice the difference. But newer equipment, 1-2 years old, acted up when printing on such paper.

The most common mistakes: grabbing and passing several sheets through yourself at once. It’s good if it didn’t harm the print. However, quite often the paper would get stuck inside, and I would have to stop printing, turn off the printer, and carefully remove the paper. If you believe the technical characteristics provided by manufacturers, the thickness of this paper is the same as that of the “eighty”: 100–105 microns. And yet something is not right about her.

Examples of the use of the word micron in literature.

Its size is 35 microns, and it is in a drop of water in the field of view of that microscope to your left. Their sizes are even 36 and 37 microns, and sometimes even larger specimens are found.

The silt gave way micron by micron, centimeter by centimeter and finally could not stand it.

It’s as if someone is sitting at the overflowing cup of patience and measuring with micron accuracy whether it reaches the edge or not.

If they managed to sweep away the microns so easily, then why couldn’t they have removed me right after landing, when the mirror trap didn’t work?

I looked around in search of microns, but there was no trace of their sparkling cloud anywhere, I also didn’t hear any voices, although by now they should have reached me.

If we assume in advance that the take will not last even a minute, we can send it from here with microns that will register its death.

This meant that after the microns of the first throw, subsequent ones would be sent to trace the fate of those flying ahead.

Apparently, the image transmitted by microns was not sharp enough.

He could pin his hopes only on the subtlety of the experiment: not on a super-powerful charge, but on a minimum distance, he could fight for millimeters, microns, millimicrons, and it would be better – for angstroms – for tenths of millimicrons.

In addition, an industrial laser for drilling holes with a diameter of five to forty microns, a metal-ceramic crystal with antennae, Canada balsam – a little, a jar – or some similar adhesive resin, another cylinder of argon, and I also ask you to change your roommate – this Hevit snores like a sawmill.


In terms of height, cartridges usually come in two types: ten-inch and twenty-inch. A standard 10″ cartridge is 250mm high, a 20″ cartridge is twice as tall.

By width, they are also divided into two types: Slim Line (slimline, SL) and Big Blue (big blue, BB). Slimline standard cartridges are narrower because they have a diameter

60–65 mm. Big Blue cartridges are wider because their diameter is

If we talk about performance, then at the same height of 10 inches, Big Blue cartridges have a longer resource, that is, they can retain more contaminants.

The micron size of polypropylene depends on the size of the microcells, which are designed to trap contaminants. It can be different: 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 microns. A micron, or micrometer in other words, is a unit of length, abbreviated as micron. In fact, it is one millionth of a meter (1 µm = 0.001 mm).

The higher the micron, the larger the contaminants the cartridge can trap and the longer it can work. And vice versa, the smaller it is, the smaller the contaminants the filter retains and the faster it clogs if there are large particles in the water.

This is why cartridges with higher micron sizes are used as coarse filters: they will retain large particles, and smaller ones will be removed in the filtration system and fine filter, into which a cartridge with a minimum micron size is installed.

In flow-through and reverse osmosis drinking systems, a polypropylene cartridge is placed as the first stage, protecting subsequent filters from medium and small insoluble particles entering them. Therefore, if there is sand in the water, for example from a well, then a main coarse filter must be installed before the water enters the house.

There are also cartridges with gradient porosity, which last longer than usual, because they work according to the same scheme: first they retain large particles, and then smaller ones.

List of goodies

  • High whiteness.
    Documents printed on high-white paper stand out among others on the desk. This is an old trick of experienced managers – print out a commercial proposal on good paper, put it in a thick glossy file and give it to the client’s management. Such a paper-file sandwich is even more tactilely pleasant, and when it falls into your hands, your fingers feel it, curiosity overcomes and makes you look at the sheet. And then the whiteness hits the eyes and incapacitates the recipient for a long time.
  • The beauty of prints.
    Fuck whiteness! Brightness makes the difference. As I talked about this characteristic above – good paper has amazing clarity of prints. Whatever the quality of the text itself, its execution – readability and beauty – on such paper will always be at the highest level.
  • Equipment maintenance.
    I understand how crazy this sounds. In more than 15 years of work, only in a couple of places I saw a technician who periodically came and serviced the equipment. I’ll explain it more clearly: a printer that is not monitored and only used to print documents on economy-class paper will quickly die. If you only replace paper with a higher grade, the printer will still die, but later. But if you add regular maintenance to good paper, the printer will die, but after a dozen years or more. I have examples. Depending on the class of paper, the frequency of equipment maintenance also changes: the better the paper, the less frequent it is.

Listen, I don’t worry about buying expensive paper. I provide information and encourage you to make the right choice from my point of view. But this choice must be conscious and financially justified. If you have a basic-level disposable printer, there is no point in worrying about paper: it will use up its declared resource and go to the trash.

It’s worth worrying about paper, consumption and maintenance if you have premium or at least average equipment. And, by the way, in addition to the advantages of playing for a long time, there are also momentary micro-pluses: for example, employees are mentally healthy and happy that their equipment works without failures, and the printed documents are clean and tidy.

Polypropylene type

Replacement modules are made of polypropylene foam or polypropylene thread. A cartridge made of polypropylene thread is practically no different from a foam one, but it holds large particles better, especially under low pressure. It consists of polypropylene fibers collected into a rope. The production of such modules is a more labor-intensive process, which is why they cost more.

Separately, it is worth mentioning petal corrugated cartridges. They consist of a plastic core and “petals” – thin sheets of polypropylene foam or non-woven cellulose. The advantages of such modules are that they provide good throughput and do not reduce the pressure in the system. Some of them can be washed and reused.

Important: polypropylene cartridges must be replaced with new ones once every 3-6 months (depending on the degree of water contamination and the intensity of its use). Such replacement of modules is included in the service work that is necessary for any water treatment filters.

If your water has any contamination, please contact:

We will select a water treatment filter or design a filter system. As a result, your water will meet sanitary standards.

If you decide to order a water treatment system from us, remember about the free services:


Types of micrometers

The following types of micrometers are available for various measurement objects:

  • Sheet micrometers – for measuring the thickness of sheets.
  • Smooth micrometers – for determining the size of objects with a smooth surface.
  • Lever micrometers – equipped with a lever-toothed head for measuring products with complex configurations.
  • Pipe micrometers – for determining the dimensions of pipe walls.
  • Wire and thread gauges – for measuring thin products.
  • Digital micrometers – equipped with an electronic sizing system and a digital scale.


  • Units: microns (µm),
  • Normal: 100–110 µm,
  • Ideally: 106 microns.

The optimal thickness of the paper sheet ensures that the paper feeds evenly into the printer and reduces the likelihood of paper jams during printing. If the paper is too thin, the printer may pick up multiple sheets at once and cause them to jam inside. And if the paper is too thick, the printer’s feed rollers will not grab the sheet or will grab it, but it will get stuck between them (this is in theory, I’ve never encountered anything like this). This, again, will lead to equipment breakdown, loss of money and time.

Deception thickness when gilding | elhimmet

Measuring the thickness of electroplated coatings is not a simple task. Some metal deposition processes allow a certain thickness of coating to be deposited with fairly high accuracy; for this purpose, the current and time of deposition are recorded. But in the case of gold, this method does not work. You made a choice, came to the contractor and agreed that they would apply gold plating to your product. During the initial communication with them, you are involved in bargaining, in addition to everything else, also regarding the thickness of the gold plating. You don’t know what thickness to choose. The advantage of 5, for example micron coating, versus half-micron coating is explained to you. There are no clear standards for the thickness of gold coatings that guarantee your product the long life you need. This is the same case: the more gold, the better. You make a painful but conscious choice, and in accordance with the value of the order for you and your capabilities, you choose the average, for example 3 microns. And here it’s worth asking the service provider a question: How does he measure the thickness of the gold plating? How are you guaranteed the thickness of the gold in the coating you pay for on your product? You just reached a consensus and paid. And now, it turns out that the company that has undertaken to fulfill your order cannot even measure for itself the thickness of the coating that it undertakes to apply. What exactly is being negotiated about? If they tell you that the thickness of a gold coating is determined based on calculating the time and amount of current passed during application, you should know that this is not true, the current efficiency in gold electrolytes is not a constant value! It’s impossible to get attached to this! Before you negotiate and pay, find out how the thickness and amount of gold in the coating will be guaranteed. For reference, we repeat that the full color of the gold coating on the product appears after 0.03 microns. This is the thickness that is usually applied when applying gold by rubbing using “gels”. This is not a thickness measure! This is 100 times less than what they tell you! 3 microns there or 0.03 cannot be determined by eye! They do not differ in color, but they differ 100 times in cost. In the same way, gold plating can be applied in a bath either to a “color” of 0.03 microns or 3 microns. It’s a matter of skill and honesty.

Let’s give an example of pricing in the case of fair gold plating thickness.

The area of ​​your product, for example, is 1 square. decimeter. Task: determine how much gold should be applied to a product with an area of ​​1 square. dm so that the coating thickness is 1 micron (micron)? 1 sq. dm. = 100 sq cm. 1 micron = 0.0001 cm. Density of gold 19.3 g/cm?. Is the volume of the coating equal to 100 x 0.0001 = 0.01 cm? (one hundredth of a cubic centimeter) The weight of gold in this volume of coating is 0.01 x 19.3 = 0.193 g

To summarize, the weight of gold, 1 micron thick on an area of ​​1 square. dm. equal to 0.193 grams. Now let’s calculate the cost of gold in the electrolyte. It cannot be equal to the cost of pure metallic gold, because in the electrolyte from which gold is deposited, it is contained in the form of a certain chemical compound. When purchasing this compound, you have to pay 2,200 rubles per gram of gold. Let’s find out how much the gold already deposited will cost in terms of this compound. 2200 rubles x 0.193 g = 424.6 rubles. Now tell me how there can be offers in the market in the form of 500, 800 rubles per sq. m. dm. or 5-8 rubles per sq. see one micron gold plating? There, gold alone costs more than 400 rubles, and you still have to prepare an electrolyte from it, do all the preparation of the product, apply the coating, pay wages, rent, taxes, etc. Notice that I talked about preparing the electrolyte. But there are only a few such companies. The rest use purchased, often foreign-made, electrolytes. Each gram of gold in such an electrolyte is much more expensive. On the way to Russia they also go through customs… this only makes the price higher. And gold, that’s why it’s gold, because its price is the same everywhere. So the goldsmiths have to be cunning and apply less than what was stated and paid for by the buyer in order to cover all costs. It is clear that the vast majority of companies providing gilding services in our country greatly inflate the actual thickness of their coatings in words and, due to this, are able to achieve an unrealistic price reduction. Only with equal coating thickness, our prices are lower. We produce electrolytes of our own, from raw materials purchased in our country. Therefore, for the same price we have the opportunity to apply greater thickness.

Ultra bonus: checklist for purchasing paper

  • Famous store.
    We are not necessarily talking about a federal monster like Comus, Officemag or Informat at the ready with Kanzpark. It is enough for the company to be well known. As I have said more than once, reputation is more valuable than selling low-quality goods. Like that joke: but you only have to stumble once
  • Famous brand.
    Names of papers that are well known. Alas, most likely, only C/C class brands like Snegurochka and SvetoCopy Classic are known. Therefore I give the third point.
  • Well-known manufacturer.
    Here are three proven and trusted manufacturers in Russia: Mondi (Snegurochka, IQ) International Paper (SvetoCopy, Ballet) and Xerox. It’s not that I didn’t trust the others (here Gosznak peeked around the corner with hope), but it’s not clear what they are needed for if there is normal paper.
  • Characteristics.
    My article is to help with the information provided by the seller. Compare and choose.
  • Price.
    Beware of fakes. Yes, in more than 15 years of work I have only once encountered a counterfeit of a famous paper. And it was so bad that there was no doubt about what exactly I was holding in my hands. In general, it makes no sense to counterfeit paper for the sake of 15–20 rubles per pack – the risks and labor costs are too high. And yet, the low price should activate the security system in the head and make you think that something is wrong here. Here are your options: low quality of the product, the paper was imported into the country illegally, it is not certified, its technical characteristics are not suitable for local equipment, or it is outright stolen. However, your conscience is your risks.

Calculation formula

The value under consideration is inversely dependent on the cross-sectional dimensions (the larger the area, the lower the current density) and the time period of passage of the electric charge, and directly dependent on the magnitude of this charge.

It can be written like this:

j=Δq/ΔtΔS (q here is an elementary small charge, t is an infinitesimal period of time, and S is the cross-sectional area).

Since the current force is expressed as a quotient of the charge and the time interval of its passage, the formula can be written as follows:

j= I/ΔS.

The current density formula based on the parameters of moving charges will look like this:

j=q*n*V (V here is the speed, and n is the concentration of electron particles).

The smaller the micron, the better the cleaning or worse

FAQ on choosing a reverse osmosis filter

1) What is reverse osmosisReverse osmosis is a process in which, at a certain pressure, a solvent (usually water) passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a more concentrated to a less concentrated solution, that is, in the opposite direction for osmosis. In this case, the membrane allows the solvent to pass through, but does not allow the passage of some substances dissolved in it.

2) Pros and cons: It filters hardness salts, sulfates, nitrates, sodium ions, some bacteria and viruses well (but the filter itself can become a breeding ground for bacteria if it is not used for a long time)— The membrane itself requires preliminary purification of the water from some impurities – Slowly – Requires a certain water pressure – During operation, drains part of the water into the sewer – (Very controversial) removes almost all salts, which is why some consider water from reverse osmosis systems to be “dead”

3) A reverse osmosis system can purify water to a state close to distilled water. The parameter of the amount of dissolved salts, measured in ppm or mg/l, is often used as (by no means the only) indicator of water purification.

For measurement, a TDS meter is used, which measures the resistance of water and, based on this indicator, determines the salinity of the water (although, of course, this method has a certain error, since the electrical conductivity of water depends not only on the concentration of salts, but and their composition).

5) Inexpensive membranes (1-2 thousand rubles) filter water at a rate of 50-100gpd (gallon per day, gallons per day), which translated into liters per minute leads to figures of 100-300ml/minute (depending on including from water pressure), which for many is unacceptably slow, and therefore systems with such a membrane are almost always equipped with a storage tank.

Systems with a tank are less able to tolerate long periods of downtime (several days), when the owners, for example, go on vacation, since the tank and other filter elements can become infected with bacterial and not very living creatures without periodic use. In the case of a direct-flow system, as a last resort, the entire filter can be placed in the refrigerator to slow down the growth of bacteria, but this solution will not help for more than a week or two.

6) Reverse osmosis systems remove impurities faster and more efficiently, the higher the pressure difference between the source solution and clean water (permeate). In most cases, reverse osmosis systems are connected directly to the water supply, and the pressure in the system will be equal to the pressure in the water supply.

To measure this pressure, it is necessary, oddly enough, to use a pressure gauge; for example, a pressure gauge can be connected instead of a shower head in the bathroom and you don’t have to suddenly turn on the cold water. If there is no pressure gauge, but you really want to know the pressure at least approximately, then you can proceed from the number of floors of the house: let the house have n (where n is not very many, up to 15-20) floors, and on the top floor you can expect a pressure of 2-3 atmospheres; then on floor k, where you live, the pressure will be higher by (n-k)

Let’s look at the pressure ranges and what you can expect to get at each pressure:

– 1-3 atm: low water pressure, the reverse osmosis system will not clean well enough and drain a large amount of water into the drain. For adequate performance, you will almost certainly need a pump to increase the pressure (some are built into the water filter) – 3-4 atm: average water pressure, at this pressure systems with a tank perform very well, and almost any, but direct-flow systems produce low performance. 4-6 atm: high water pressure, at this pressure it is already necessary to take into account the quality of the system blocks, since cheap flasks for pre-filters can say “continue without me,” break and cause a flood.

It is preferable to use disposable maintenance-free flasks with filters or high-quality components, such as in Atoll systems (NOT the DIY version, which is sold, for example, in Leroy Merlin!). At this pressure, direct-flow systems already show adequate filtration rates.

At this pressure, the four-way valve, which is responsible for the fact that water goes into the drain only when water is filtered, can also gradually begin to “fail.” A non-functioning valve can lead to a large waste of water.— 6 atm: very high water pressure, it is better not to joke with such pressure and reduce it with a reducer (preferably membrane) at the entrance to the apartment; not all reverse osmosis systems (and other water consumers) designed for such high pressure.

Electrical conductivity (static electricity)

  • Norm: not present,
  • Ideally: not present.

This characteristic is not indicated everywhere, but it is important. All modern laser and LED devices use electrical toner transfer. If the paper has high electrical conductivity, the toner will not adhere well to its surface and will fall off without leaving a mark.

And if it has low electrical conductivity, then the sheets become highly electrified, and more toner sticks to them than necessary. Then the print on the sheet turns out dark, bold or with stripes. If the sheets in a stack have different electrical conductivities, then they can become magnetized and stick together or, on the contrary, slide over each other and fly apart in different directions. Such magic, yes.


  • Units: percent (%),
  • Normal: 96–98%,
  • Ideally: 97%.

Brightness cannot be greater than 100%. If more is indicated, it means that additives from the same series were used as in the calculations of paper whiteness. An example of this is the extended technical specifications in the scan above. Brightness is measured by the percentage of light reflected at a specific wavelength (457 nanometers – somewhere between blue and green).

Absolute reflection is taken to be 100%, but this is impossible. For printing text on office paper, it is the brightness that is important, and not the whiteness written on all packs. Brightness affects the contrast of text. The higher it is, the easier the text is read and perceived.

But for printing images they use other paper – for digital printing, for example. I talked about it in an article about the nuances of production. This paper has low brightness, but high whiteness, necessary for high-quality color rendition.