Modern paper production technologies. Main trends in the field.

Lesson summary on technology topic: “furniture. designing furniture from cardboard.” product: table and bench, grade 2 | lesson plan on technology (grade 2): | educational social network

Date: 02/06/2021                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Full name of the teacher: Ershova S. V.

School: No. 152                                                                                Full name of the methodologist: Chernysheva S. A.

Class: 2e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student FI: Olga Gorbunova

Cabinet: 110


Topic: “Furniture. Designing furniture from cardboard.”

 Table and bench

Teacher’s goals:
 to consolidate the ability to design from paper; follow the sequence of technological operations; develop technical and logical thinking, fine motor skills, patience, perseverance and accuracy through practical work; cultivate interest in the history of Russian life.

Planned results:

 know the definition of “design”, be able to design from paper; be able to plan your work; evaluate your own work

conduct self-assessment, mutual assessment, determine the level of interest in the work, and recognize the difficulties that have arisen.

Lesson type:
developmental education

Teacher Equipment:
 sample and

templates, technological map of the product, textbook (2nd grade, “Perspective”, N. I. Rogovtseva, N. V. Bogdanova, N. V. Dobromyslova “Technology”),  presentation.

Apprentice equipment:
 colored paper, colored cardboard, glue, scissors, envelopes with templates.

Board Layout:
 topic of the lesson, assessment criteria, technological map for manufacturing the product.

Practical: getting the job done



What do you remember most?

Lesson topic: “Furniture. Designing furniture from cardboard”

Lesson objectives:

– get acquainted with the concept of “design”



New concept, technique for making the product

Product execution

K.: build a monologue statement,

own a dialogic form of communication;

P.: identify the essential:

VIII. Activity reflection (by product)


Room layout out of the box: master class

Hello, dear friends! And we have a master class! Today we will make a model of a room out of a box. Let’s create your dream room.

In general, my daughter Alexandra received such an unusual task in a technology lesson; she is in the 6th grade. But our room turned out to be so cool that it’s worth making it just for fun. And then you can play with it, for example, put some cute little doll in it.

And the work is creative, pleasant, interesting.

The main element of the room is a shoebox in which we cut a door that can be opened and closed.


They also cut out two windows. We used a utility knife for this. The base is ready.


Let’s do the floors of our room. We have a type of carpet on the floor. We made it from two sheets of corrugated cardboard in yellow and green colors.


Cut the cardboard into strips.


And then we glued the strips to the bottom of the box using a glue stick.


And now the wallpaper. They took greenish paper.

And then we sew them into pads, fill them with cotton wool and glue letters, also cut out of felt, onto the front side. The letters form the name Sasha) We place the pillows on the sofa. We also made a beautiful blanket for the sofa from felt.

Lesson steps

Methods and techniques


Lesson content

Formation of UUD

Teacher activities

Student activities

I. Stage of self-determination to activity

Verbal: teacher’s story


Hello guys. Have a seat. My name is Olga Vladimirovna, and today I will give you a technology lesson.

Open your souls and hearts,

Say kind words.

Smile at each other,

Strive to become kinder!

Return greeting

R.: self-determination for activity

II. Updating knowledge and motivation

Verbal: conversation

Practical: working with the concept



– Guys, what was the topic of your last lesson?

  – What do you think we still need for our hut?

– What product do you think we will make in class?

– What do you think is the topic of our lesson?

– Guys, any production of a product begins with a design. Do you know what design is?

-Then what goals will you set for yourself for the lesson?

Work in pairs.

Guys, which of you can accurately say what “construction” is? Think in pairs about the meaning of this word. You have exactly 30 seconds to do this. Time is up. Let’s listen to your options. That’s right, well done guys!

Guys, now let’s solve a little riddle:

With legs and no arms,

With sides, but without ribs,

With a seat, but without a belly,

With a back, but without a head.

Under the roof – four legs,

And on the roof there is soup and spoons.

If you’re tired of playing,

Then you lie down on…

Everyone will notice me in the room,

And having opened me, he will meet winter and summer.

I’m comfortable, very soft,

It’s not difficult for you to guess, –

Loved by grandmothers and grandchildren

Sit and lie down

Answer questions

– modeling a stove from plasticine

– tables and benches

– we will make a table and bench from cardboard

Formulation of the lesson topic:

– production of furniture from cardboard


 Statement of lesson objectives:

– find out what “construction” is

– learn to make a table and bench out of cardboard yourself

Answer the question:

– precise manufacturing of the product, including calculations

Solve riddles:






K.: build a monologue statement

P.: establish cause-and-effect relationships; independent identification and formulation of a cognitive goal
 carry out operations of analysis, synthesis, comparison, classification.

III. Setting a learning task

Verbal: conversation


What material will we use to make this product?

Answer the question:

– cardboard

construct a monologue statement

P.: draw conclusions, generalizations.

 R.: acceptance and preservation of the learning task

IV. Discovery of new knowledge (pedagogical demonstration)

Verbal: conversation


We developed a topic and set goals. Are you ready to make a table and bench?

In order to do the job correctly, we will turn to the technological map.

What materials do we need?

What tools will we need?

Guys, how will we carry out the marking stage?

What needs to be done at the procurement stage?

Next is assembly, what will we do at this stage?

And then, design, what do you think at this stage?


Answer the question:

– glue, cardboard


Answer questions:

– we carry out the marking stage using templates, gluing them onto cardboard

-cut out the templates and bend the parts where necessary

– glue all the valves that we have

-decoration of work with various patterns

P.: understand information presented in pictorial, schematic, model form.

R.: taking into account the highlighted action guidelines in the new educational material in collaboration with the teacher.



Guys, let’s take a little rest and remember the safety rules.

I read you a statement. If it is true, then you stand and clap your hands; if the statement is false, then you sit down.

Do you understand the task?

Scissors should be stored in a closed case

We pass the scissors rings forward.

During operation, you do not need to monitor the movement of the blades

The adhesive must be closed after use

Scissors can be left open

You can work with faulty scissors


Clap your hands.


Clap your hands



V. Primary consolidation in external speech

Verbal: student’s story, conversation


Frontal survey

Let’s repeat how to make this product.

What stages do we have in our work, and what will we do at each stage

At the end of the lesson, each of you will receive a grade. Let’s highlight the criteria for evaluating work. I propose to highlight four criteria (as the answer progresses, the criteria appear on the board).

– high-quality workmanship of the product?

-what would you call the criterion when the work is done correctly??

– did you do the work yourself, or with my help? If yourself, then the criterion…

– your work has been completed, which means the criterion is…

When we complete the work,  how will your work be similar? How will your work be different?

You can get to work. I wish you creative success.

– marking – glue the template onto the cardboard;

– blank – cut out templates;

– assembly – glue the valves;

-decoration – we decorate the work with a pattern

Working technology


– neatness



– completeness

Answer questions

– design

-color, decoration

K.: build a monologue statement.

P.: formation of generalized knowledge.

VI. Independent work with self-test

Raise your lessons if you don’t understand something.

Product execution R.: the ability to act according to a plan and plan one’s activities.

VII. Inclusion in the knowledge system

Verbal: conversation

Guys, let’s remember the topic of the lesson.

What goals did you set for the lesson?

Have we achieved our goals?

 What words did we learn today? – learn to make a table and bench out of cardboard yourself L.: participation in summing up the lesson.


Let’s see what kind of work you got. To do this, let’s look at our criteria. Who wants to come to the board and evaluate themselves according to our criteria.


LESSON OVER! Start cleaning your workplace

Self-assessment based on criteria

R.: adequate perception of the teacher’s assessment.

L.: self-esteem

Cleaning workplaces


– control over the cleaning of workplaces;

– organizing control over the cleaning of workplaces.

Cleaning workplaces, self-control.

R.: accepting and saving the task

And carefully glued it to the walls of our boxed room.

Frames were made of white paper around the windows. Everything is like people)

And we made the door yellow with curly green tabs. In general, our entire room will be in yellow-green tones.


The room is ready. We begin manufacturing furniture and interior items. Let’s start with the sofa. Let’s take a tea bag, colored paper, scissors and a lid from a box that has already turned into a room.

материалы-для дивана

We cover the box with paper, and cut out the back and sides of the sofa from the lid.


We also cover the sides and back with colored paper and glue them to the sofa. Ready! You can sleep)


A floor lamp is provided as lighting in our cardboard room. Let’s make it from a toilet paper roll.


The floor lamp will look like a lampshade on a leg, remember, these used to be very popular. Cut out the sleeve like this. There is a lampshade on top, a stand on the bottom, and a leg between them.


We paint the inside of the lampshade with yellow paint, and the stand with green paint.


We cover the outside of the lampshade with yellow corrugated cardboard, and the leg and stand with green.


This is what the floor lamp looks like from behind. Now it won’t be dark)


Let’s turn a box of vitamins into a closet.


Just cover it with colored paper. The closet is ready! Now there will be somewhere to put things.


And we’ll turn these matchboxes and a piece of cardboard into a desk.


Glue the boxes together, 4 pieces at a time. And cover them with colored paper.


We decorate the drawers, glue colored paper and half beads, which act as handles on the drawers, you can make them from something else. We decorate a tabletop made of durable cardboard with colored paper.


Glue the tabletop in place.


We make the chair using the same principle. We take two matchboxes and a piece of thick cardboard.


We cover everything with colored paper and connect it into a single whole. Ready! Have a seat)


Here it is, all our designer yellow-green handmade furniture.


Let’s try to put the furniture in its place. View from above.


View from the door.


View from the windows.


And everything would be very good, but there are not enough decorative things. Let’s do interior design. We found these cute pictures with the cat Basik. What you need)


We cut out frames for our paintings from yellow corrugated cardboard.


We glue a large picture in the area of ​​the door.


We “hang” a couple of small paintings on the other wall. And we have another one located near the sofa.


Next up is textiles. We decided to put beautiful pillows on the sofa. How to make them? First, cut out square blanks from felt.

Yes, and we also placed an ottoman on the floor next to the sofa. Finally, we found a use for our green pompom, which we made with our own hands a long time ago)

And they hung curtains on the windows for comfort. They were made from old tulle that had served its purpose. Felt strips were sewn along the top of the curtains and then simply glued to the wall above the windows. The room immediately felt cozy)

This is what the room looks like from above now.

Let’s take a look from here too. Beauty, isn’t it? Would you like to live in such a room? We wouldn’t refuse)

That’s the whole master class. Try to create something similar in your free time. This is truly a very exciting activity.
We didn’t glue the furniture to the floor. It is very interesting to rearrange, which will be very interesting for children.

That’s all for today! Come visit again, you are always welcome here)

Creative team of the blog “ShkolaLa”

Modern paper production technologies. Main trends in the field.

Review of modern technologies for applying images to fabric materials made from natural and synthetic polymers

N. V. Romanova, R. A. Gabbasov, G. P. Tuluzakova,

A. Yu. Mirotvortseva, A. I. Vildanova, L. D. Valeeva



Key words: glue, paints, printing, stencil, transfer, thermal transfer, sublimation, fabric, material.

Modern technologies for applying images to fabric materials made from natural and synthetic polymers have been studied. It was revealed that the printing technology is selected depending on the chemical composition of the fabric fibers, the color of the material, the number of products and the color of the image.

Keywords: glue, paint, print, stencil, transfer, thermal transfer, sublimation, fabric, material.

Investigated by modern technology, the decoration of textile materials from natural and synthetic polymers. Revealed that the printing technology is selected depending on the chemical composition of fabrics, colors, material, number of products and color images.

All existing technologies for applying images to fabric are based on the interaction of paint and fabric fibers. There are several types of inks used for printing on fabric: plastisol, water-based, solvent and


Plastisol (polyvinyl chloride-based) paints adhere well to fabric, enveloping its fibers without coloring them, but providing mechanical adhesion. Therefore, they are also well suited for printing on thick, water-repellent nylon fabrics that cannot be printed with other inks. Plastisols are very elastic, they can be easily colored with pigments and foamed by adding certain reagents. These paints are very durable. Plastisol paints can be foaming, phosphorescent, with a “metallic” effect, with glitter, and elastic. Also included in the category of plastisols is a special adhesive for foiling products.

The second group of inks are water-based, which can be used to print on natural and many

synthetic fabrics. Water-based paints

have a significant drawback: they are lighter

are washed out. However, in certain cases, their choice is completely justified: they are cheaper than plastisol ones, and justify themselves if it is necessary to produce a large circulation of products that will be used once or twice, for example, for

holding any promotion. Water-based paints can be process, fluorescent, or metallized. To dry them, high-temperature drying is required, which somewhat limits the range


The next type of ink is solvent ink, intended for printing on synthetics.

Also used for printing

sublimation inks, which are used to create transfers that can be transferred to light-colored synthetic fabrics. The drawings are very durable, highly lineature, and the quality of the prints is comparable to offset ones. Sublimation transfers are well suited for small runs [1].

Today, many different technologies have been developed for applying colorful images to fabric, which are divided into two groups: direct and indirect printing methods. All direct printing technologies involve applying an image directly to fabric, for example, using silk-screen printing or drawing individual copyrighted copies by an artist using a brush or screen printing with a pad. Indirect printing methods involve applying an application to a product through an intermediate medium, this is how all types of transfer printing are performed. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.

One of the oldest methods of direct printing on fabric is drawing an image using a brush or screen printing with a pad. The advantage of this technology is that it is suitable for all types of fabrics. For this purpose, special paints have been developed that can be used for individual decorative purposes and on an industrial scale. Almost all paints for decorative painting on fabric are suitable for cotton, and special paints have been developed for silk and linen. Paints for decorative painting on fabric have different consistencies, which allows you to imitate various artistic painting techniques. For silk, liquid paints are used, which are applied in a thin layer, and for dense fabrics, thick paste paints can also be used. Fabrics treated with special compounds tend to resist the application of such paint, like many synthetic ones [2-3].

Silk-screen printing technology has been known for a long time; its prototype was screen printing, invented in Ancient China. The principle of silk-screen printing is to apply viscous paint to a product by pressing it through a fine sieve stencil using a special elastic knife – a squeegee. Thanks to the ability of screen printing to produce a layer on the print whose thickness is many times greater than with other technology, images are bright and saturated, including on materials with a pronounced texture.

This method can be printed on any textile materials, so it is one of the most common ways to print small images on fabric. The ability to widely use special effects – glitter (spangles), light reflection, thermal rise, three-dimensional printing, imitation velvet or rubber when printing on finished garments makes modern silk-screen printing a leader among technologies for creative solutions. This technology makes it possible to achieve excellent abrasion resistance, largely due to the ability to obtain a thick paint layer from normal 8-10 microns to 500 or more color brightness. The advantages of this method include the ability to print on almost any material.

Direct printing methods also include the technology of printing on fabric with vinyl films, in which the image is applied using special multi-colored films. With this printing technology, the applied image is cut out from a single-color film on a cutting plotter and glued to the fabric using a press. The image applied using vinyl films is resistant to abrasion, the film does not wear off or fade, and is only resistant to aggressive environments (for example, it dissolves in alcohol). The disadvantage is the fact that it is impossible to apply a full-color image with vinyl films, since this technology is intended for applying 1-3 color images. Another limitation of the technology is small parts. Some design elements are technically impossible to manufacture, such as a 1mm square.

One of the new and promising direct printing technologies is inkjet printing directly onto the fabric, after which the image is fixed for one and a half minutes in a heat press. Printing occurs with water-based pigment inks. The image is printed with high photographic resolution and allows you to work out even the smallest details. This technology allows you to achieve good quality and durability when printing on white and light-colored materials, since the ink penetrates into the structure of the fabric,

When printing on dark materials, the process changes slightly. First, white paint is applied to the fabric, which hardens into a thin layer similar to rubber, after which a color image is applied to the white “backing”. Due to the specifics of this technology, during the first wash, 10-15% of the color is removed from dark T-shirts, but even so, the durability indicators of direct printing technology are second only to screen printing. Another distinctive feature of this technology is the wide range of printed materials, this method allows you to print on any fabric that can withstand heat curing at a temperature of 150°C, namely: colored and dyed cotton T-shirts, linen, jute, denim, tarpaulin,

canvas, chintz. The exception is natural silk, due to its low adhesion properties[4].

Transfer printing on fabrics refers to indirect screen printing methods. This method involves transferring paint to the product through an intermediate medium, which is paper. Thus, to obtain a design on fabric, you need to print it on paper, and then use a heat press to transfer it. Thermoplastic (or adhesive) transfer uses silicone paper as the printing substrate, and the image is formed from several layers, and the printing is done in a reverse (mirror) image. An essential feature of this method is the application of the last layer of thermoplastic material – glue. When transferred under the influence of high temperature, the glue softens and penetrates the structure of the fabric, and when cooled, it hardens again and the entire transfer is firmly glued (fused) into the substrate. After this, the silicone paper is easily separated, as a result of which the design is transferred to the fabric.

The thermoplastic transfer method can be used for most types of heat-resistant fabrics, and their chemical composition does not matter, since only the adhesive is in contact with the substrate. The color of the fabric can be either light or dark, since when printing transfers, mainly opaque inks are used, and if necessary, a white backing can also be applied.

Transfer printing is an alternative method of applying an image to fabric. Transfer printing, unlike direct printing, has no restrictions on the number of colors used in the image, allows you to achieve accurate color registration, and also allows you to obtain raster images of good quality, since the paper on which transfers are printed, unlike fabric, is smooth and almost non-absorbent. The advantage of transfer printing is the fact that if a defect occurs during printing, only a sheet of paper will be damaged, and not an expensive textile product. Transfers can be printed in one edition, which can subsequently be transferred to various products made from fabrics of different composition.

The variety of fabrics that can be printed with this method also determines one feature that should be kept in mind:

image durability on different materials may vary [1].

The advantages of thermal transfer printing include the relatively high resistance of the pattern to friction and the fact that

The image can withstand machine washing up to 80°C. Another advantage is the ability to produce an image in a single copy with high quality of application and detail [5]. It should be noted that due to the variety of fabrics used for printing, the images obtained on them may have different properties,

first of all, durability. Therefore, it is recommended that manufacturers always carry out testing before using a new type of fabric. This applies to all transfer printing technologies.

Sublimation transfer printing technology, unlike thermoplastic, does not involve transferring the entire ink layer from paper to fabric. It is based on the property of some dyes to transform into a gaseous state (sublimate) under the influence of temperature. Printing is done on special paper. During the transfer process, under the influence of high temperature, dyes diffuse into the fabric structure. Dye molecules form a chemical bond with certain active groups of fiber molecules, so this method is applicable only for synthetic or mixed fabrics. There is no paint layer in the traditional sense, therefore, using this technology, it is possible to obtain an image only on white or light-colored fabric.

Sublimation heat transfer printing is very important in decorating synthetic fabrics. This method is used in the manufacture of flags, sportswear, umbrellas and many other products. Compared to thermoplastic transfer and direct textile printing, it has several advantages. First of all, it is high chemical, thermal and radiation resistance. Sublimation transfer can be carried out on most synthetic fabrics or mixed ones with a synthetic content of at least 60%.

Printing with sublimation dyes on paper for subsequent transfer can be done in various ways: offset, flexography or on a printer, but screen printing is most widespread. This is due, first of all, to the fact that silk-screen printing allows you to apply the thickest layer of paint, resulting in high brightness and color saturation after transfer. The choice of screen printing is often also determined by the fact that the equipment used imposes virtually no restrictions on the print format, which is especially important in the manufacture of flags and clothing.

Printing of sublimation transfers can be done on any type of screen printing machines: manual, semi-automatic, automatic.

Thermal transfer requires the use of presses with a uniform distribution of temperature and pressure over the plate area, since otherwise the transfer of dyes will be uneven and the image will receive unequal saturation in different places. Abroad, callanders are often used instead of a heat press. It is recommended to dry printed sheets of paper in a hot air oven or at room temperature. Once drying is complete, the transfers are ready for transfer. It is not recommended to store finished transfers for a long time, since sublimation dyes tend to migrate, which results in loss of image clarity.

Transfer conditions are different for each type of fabric. For example, for polyester, which is used most often, the transfer is carried out at 200-220 ° C for 40 seconds. For other materials, it is recommended to select the temperature and time experimentally.

Thus, technologies for applying images to modern fabric materials made from natural and synthetic polymers have been studied. The presented printing technologies are selected depending on the chemical composition of the fabric fibers, the color of the material, the number of products and the color of the image.


1. Krikunova O., Sedov I. Transfer printing on fabrics / O. Krikunova, I. Sedov [Electronic resource]. Access mode:


2. Box A. Review of inks for screen printing A. Box // ComputerArt. – 2004. – No. 5

– Korob A. New plastisol inks for printing on textiles / A. Korob // CompuArt. – 2006. No. 4

4. Image technology [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http: // free

– Avdeev I., Ivanov Y. Technology. Printing on T-shirts / I. Avdeev, Yu. Ivanov // Format. – 2006. No. 4

6. Murtazina S. A. Areas of application of polymer materials in modern design / S. A. Murtazina // Bulletin of Kazan.technol.un-ta. – 2021.-№10.-S. 146-150. Kalimutina A. R., Romanova N. V. Chemical technology of polymer fibers in textile materials / A. R. Kalimullina. N. V. Romanova // Bulletin

Kazan.technol.un-ta. 2021.-№16.-P. 141-143.

© N.V. Romanova – Art. teacher department design KNRTU, [email protected]; R. A. Gabbasov – associate professor of the same department; G. P. Tuluzakova – associate professor of the same department; A. Yu. Mirotvortseva – Art. teacher the same department; A.I. Vildanova – head. educational workshop of the same department; L. D. Valeeva – head. educational workshop of the same department.