All about faxes.
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Fax machines, also called telefaxes or simply faxes,
became widespread in our country only recently
decade. However, the fax was invented much earlier.
And for the first time the idea of a “recording telegraph”, capable, however, of transmitting
only contrasting black and white images without halftones, in 1843
patented by Scotsman Alexander Bain. But even in such a “stripped-down” form, this one
the idea turned out to be so fruitful that work began already in 1865
the first commercial fax line connecting Paris and Lyon. A in
At the beginning of the twentieth century, telefaxes entered government practice
institutions, police and newspaper publishers in many countries.
But fax machines of that period, produced by various
manufacturers, had different parameters and could not always communicate
And the first standard for fax communication was adopted internationally
by the EIA only in 1966. Fax machines matching
requirements of this standard, began to be classified as so-called “group I”.
However, not all manufacturers supported this standard.
1978, when the International Telegraph Advisory Committee and
telephony (CCITT) announced the introduction of an improved “Group 2” standard,
already accepted by all companies in the world. The main difference of the new standard
There was a higher transmission speed, resulting in a higher transfer time
one page was halved – from 6 to 3 minutes. Even higher
speed (when sending a page takes no more than 30 – 60 s), as well as
provided complete automation of the process of transmitting fax messages
“Group 3” standard adopted in 1980. Vast majority
Fax machines currently sold operate in this standard. In 1984 there was
another standard has been adopted – “group 4” – providing for the transmission of faxes from
higher resolution, as well as full-color fax images,
oriented, however, more towards the use of high-speed channels
ISDN network connections.
today fax communication is the most accessible, fast and
the cheapest of all modern types of electronic information transmission. Except
Moreover, fax communication is a type of documentary communication that provides
transfer of not only the content, but also the appearance of documents.
How a fax works
The very name of the fax comes from the Latin fac simile (“do like this”),
which fully reflects the essence of the facsimile transmission method, consisting of
next. The document to be transferred is scanned with a special one
photoelectric converter, resulting in its image
is broken down line by line into separate elementary fragments (about
0.1 mm), similar to how it is done in television. Resulting in
scanner output electrical signals proportional to the coefficient
reflections of such elementary document fragments are fed to the modem,
which converts them into a sequence of modulated signals,
transmitted to another fax machine over a regular telephone line. On
the receiving side reconstructs signals from modulated signals
images that control the operation of a special reproducing device.
Thus, functionally, a telefax is similar to a photocopier, the input and
the output parts of which are simply separated by some distance. Technically
the standard fax is an electromechanical device,
containing scanning and printing nodes, as well as a modem. And since each of
of these nodes can be performed in various ways, then it follows
such a variety of existing types of faxes.
What types of faxes are there
First of all, it should be noted that faxes differ in what they use
printing devices. And the most common for a long time
At that time there were faxes with output on thermal paper. Their virtue is
simplicity of design and, as a result, relative cheapness. However,
There are also disadvantages to this process: thermal paper is not cheap, but besides
Moreover, such copies inevitably “fade” over time and for storing important ones
Documents from fax messages additionally have to be photocopied.
To eliminate these shortcomings, fax developers began
use printing technologies that are well established for computers. So
faxes based on thermal transfer appeared, with inkjet, laser and
LED printers that provide messages on plain paper.
It must be said that the last two types of printers actually use one and
the same printing technology – just in the latter case a laser with a mechanical one
scanning, “drawing” the printed image, is replaced by a stationary one
line of LEDs with greater reliability.
All these types of faxes are somewhat more expensive, but they also provide
higher image quality, and inkjet printers make it possible
receiving color copies of documents.
stronger changes in the appearance of faxes caused modifications used in
them modems. The fact is that the protocols for transmitting fax signals over telephone
lines are very similar to the operating protocols of computer modems, and along this
reason, now almost all such devices are produced in the form
universal fax modems. Therefore, the use of special software
software allows you to turn any computer with a fax modem card into
Fax. Well, the computing capabilities of modern computers already allow
don’t just receive and process fax messages like regular graphic messages
files, but also to automate all fax exchange processes in general – including
call type recognition (voice or fax message), reception and
sending messages, creating archives of document images, sending them via
to a specified list of telephones or forwarding over local area networks,
issuing upon requests, creating paper copies of the necessary ones (and not all of them!)
fax messages, etc.
Well, the achievements of modern electronics have made it possible to embed
specialized computers and into the fax machines themselves. This is how they appeared
small-sized but powerful integrated systems already produced by such
companies like Brother, Sharp, Hewlett Packard, Canon, Xerox, etc., capable
Simultaneously perform the functions of color fax, PC-fax, color copier,
color printer and color scanner.
Moreover, the scanners used in modern faxes have become different. Now
These are not only built-in devices, but also removable manual ones, as well as
full-featured flatbed scanners.
According to the “Group 3” standard, two levels of resolution of fax messages are possible:
standard providing 200 dpi horizontal and 100 dpi
vertically, and high (fine), doubling the number of points vertically,
which gives a resolution of 200×200 dpi. “Group 4” provides even more
high resolution: 400×400 dpi. These values support
Almost all modern fax models.
We have already talked about some fax parameters, but we will repeat them again together
with others that you should pay attention to when choosing a fax.
First of all, this is the type of fax: monochrome or color. In this case it is necessary
It should be noted that the color transmission standard itself is structured in such a way that if a fax
cannot print in color, then there is no crash, but it just outputs
halftone black and white copy of the document.
Next is the paper format used: roll or standard size sheets
A4. The latter option turns out to be more convenient for most applications.
Here it is useful to clarify whether there is an automatic paper cutter that provides
Automatically cut the paper after receiving a fax message
roll machines, as well as the maximum number of sheets transferred
fax for which the document tray is designed for sending documents in mode
autofeed (in addition, users should be aware that in
Most modern faxes have a limit on the maximum length
transferred sheet – this is done to eliminate the possibility of transfer,
for example, for hooligan purposes, messages of “infinite” length generated from
using several sheets of paper glued into a ring).
The next parameter is the type of printing: on thermal paper, thermal transfer method,
laser or inkjet printing. We have already talked about this, let’s just note that
the cost of printing one page in inkjet faxes is higher than in
laser ones, but laser faxes themselves are noticeably more expensive. Not bad
faxes with thermal transfer printing have the following parameters (inexpensive,
low noise, reliable), but they require special paint.
Next, you can evaluate the level of “telephone” service provided by fax,
namely, the presence of functions such as redialling, address book
telephone numbers, speed (one-touch) dialing keys, speakerphone,
answering machine, ringer volume control, ability to switch to mode
tone dialing, etc.
attention should be paid to the handset. The thing is that in faxes
There are three types of handsets: wired (like a regular telephone), plug-in
(as a rule, they must be purchased separately) and radio tubes.
In the latter case, the fax additionally plays the role of a radiotelephone base, and
Models of such faxes are produced, for example, by Panasonic, Sagem, etc.
A special section consists of the functions provided by multifunctional
computerized faxes: memory for receiving faxes (allows
electronically store a certain number of pages received
messages), as well as a similar memory for sending faxes, automatic
recognition and switching of the device to fax or telephone mode, availability
interface for connecting to a PC, etc.
Currently, a number of well-known companies (Brother, Canon, Daewoo,
Hewlett Packard, Minolta, Oki, Panasonic, Ricoh, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp,
Siemens, etc.) produces a very large number of different models
The cheapest (from $100) are the “classic” type models – with printing
on thermal paper. Faxes with thermal transfer are slightly more expensive (from $150),
inkjet (from $250) and laser (from $400). Color fax prices and
multifunctional complexes, depending on their composition and parameters,
range from $400 to over $2000.
A special group consists of miniature models (for example, the Swedish Possio PM70
and PM80), intended for use as part of mobile offices and
capable of working directly in the car.
Instead of a conclusion
The convenience of faxes is beyond doubt, and I also often use a fax,
which has been on my desktop for several years. But at the same time I don’t
I cease to be surprised how many people send their faxes to the wrong address. A
the point here is that people often make mistakes in typing, or use
incorrect phone numbers, or the connection to the PBX simply fails.
Moreover, in the case of a telephone conversation, the caller is usually quite quickly
understands that he is talking to the wrong subscriber, but when sending a fax
messages, especially when the receiving fax is in automatic mode,
this doesn’t happen. And as a result, the fax message ends up in the hands of an unauthorized person.
So it is recommended to sometimes remember this feature of fax communication.
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Ordinary-looking objects, long-familiar and ordinary, in skillful hands using an original concept can turn into an excellent business idea. Thus, fax paper and a simple device made from a cutting board, connected together, create a unique gadget, sold at a price of 2,699 rubles. what is the reason for such success?
Whistle is a completely recyclable and biodegradable product. That is, the developers guarantee that the manufacturing, use and disposal processes do not harm the environment. Which, recently, has acquired the form of sustainable demand. It is not surprising that more and more people are paying attention to this kind of gadgets.
Despite its simple shape, Whistle is quite innovative, making it a unique proposition in its market. At the same time, it functions within the framework of the usual use of the objects included in its composition.
There is a metal base inside the board; it allows magnets to securely fix a sheet of paper laid out on the surface. The fax paper itself, due to its manufacturing, allows you to draw on it with any hard object – a branded stylus with a plastic tip, sticks, pens and pencils, and, in the absence of all of the above, directly with your fingers and nails.
The swivel mechanism allows you to unwind and rewind fax paper back into the aluminum box, where it will be securely stored. With an integrated blade, just like a fax machine, you can cut the required piece of sheet from a roll. The board has the most familiar and convenient A4 format.
And everything together, collected into a single gadget, can be called a convenient notepad for drawing, creating quick notes and recordings. It is easy to use, functional and attractive in appearance. Whistle’s design leaves no one indifferent.
Made in handmade style, the notepad device sells for 2,699 rubles excluding delivery costs.
This business idea, embodied in a unique proposal, once again proves that any idea is worthy of implementation. To do this, it is enough to place it in capable hands. And every person has, if not dozens, but a couple of similar thoughts and inventions.
So, what’s stopping you?