Boom. factory – 9 (Malin -1) /

Boom. factory – 9 (malin -1) /




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              Hemp pulp production plant

Developed under the leadership of the Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, an innovative project for 100% waste-free environmentally friendly paper production, the need for which is unlimited on the world market, demonstrates the high profitability of using industrial hemp as a cellulose raw material.
The investor is invited to a project for the production of cellulose from industrial hemp, as an alternative energy-saving and environmentally friendly raw material for the needs of the national and global paper industry.
It was prepared with the aim of introducing the possibilities of providing environmentally friendly raw materials to the cardboard and paper industry of Ukraine, exporting these raw materials to Western European countries, Canada and the USA.
To implement the project, under the leadership of the Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, a business plan was developed, all the necessary marketing research was carried out, and investment costs were calculated.
This project is innovative and has no analogues on the world market.
The total cost of the project is about $53 million. Taking into account the peculiarities of national taxation, the payback period of the project is about 4 years.

Summary and conclusions
1. The implementation of the project for the construction of a plant for the production of pulp from hemp fiber will contribute to the implementation of the instructions and standards specified in the relevant acts issued by the European Community, namely:
– EU Directive No. 2001/80/EEC of 23.10.2001, which limits air emissions from fuel combustion in large enterprises;
– Directive of EU Regulation No. 86/278/EEC of June 12, 1986 on environmental protection, especially soil protection during the fertilization of hemp.
2. Pro-environmental policies in many countries, including Ukraine, require:
– search for alternative raw materials for the paper industry for the production of cellulose;
– introduction of technologies that do not pollute the environment;
– restoration of contaminated lands using the method of crop rotation of bast crops for industrial use.
3. Factors supporting the construction of a hemp fiber pulp plant:
– climatic and soil conditions that contribute to the cultivation of hemp, scientific and production experience of Ukrainian producers.
4. The location of the pulp mill: Sumy region, Glukhov, is determined by the following criteria, which provide significant advantages:
– positive attitude of local authorities;
– accessibility and close location of raw material resources (maximum 60 km from the plant) reduce production costs to a minimum;
– favorable climatic and soil conditions guarantee high yields of hemp;
– good communications – ease of delivery of raw materials and dispatch of finished products;
– the possibility of providing jobs, since this area has a high unemployment rate (more than 26%).
5. The unique technology allows us to assert that there is no competition yet on the European market for pulp from hemp fiber and straw. The properties of the product resulting from the applied technology are competitive and can meet the needs of customers.
6. The increase in demand for paper products, which was confirmed during the study and analysis of the market, allows us to conclude that the total production – 20,000 tons of cellulose – will be fully realized.
2. Origin and concept of the project
Due to increasing environmental awareness and the search for alternatives in agriculture, both in Ukraine and abroad, there has been great interest in hemp fibers and their use in various industries. American and Canadian scientists compare this interest with the Internet, emphasizing that the current state of development of deep processing of hemp is comparable to the development of the Internet 10 years ago.
Demand for long fiber pulp in Europe and the United States is already 6 million tons per year. To meet this demand, the area under hemp cultivation must be 1 million hectares. In the USA, just like in Europe, there are restrictions on deforestation. Hemp is an alternative to wood for the pulp and paper, furniture, automotive and textile industries.
Among fibrous plants, cotton occupies the most significant place, followed by jute, agave, flax, kapok, sisal, ramie and hemp. In 1999, the world production of fiber from these plants amounted to 24.32 million tons, including about 71 thousand tons of hemp fiber. Hemp was grown primarily in China, but also in Romania, South Korea, Spain and Russia. Over the past 25 years, there has been a decreasing trend in hemp fiber production. In 1999-2007 hemp fiber production has stabilized and reached 70-75 thousand tons.
In the European Union, the use of hemp for fiber is very diverse. Hemp is grown only in Spain, France and Australia. Total hemp fiber production in the EU 1999-2003 totals 6.8 thousand tons on a crop area of ​​1.7 thousand. ha.
In Ukraine in the 70s, the area under hemp crops was about 40 thousand hectares. In the 80s, synthetic fibers came into fashion, and as a result, the area under hemp cultivation decreased significantly, and in 1990, the area under cultivation was 10.2 thousand hectares, and in 1995, 3.2 thousand. ha. The main reasons for this situation were difficult financial and credit conditions that did not take into account the special nature of this industrial sector and problems with the sale of products on domestic and foreign markets that arose as a result of imports from the European Union of products for which subsidies were given. The collapse of the textile industry, which is closely related to agriculture, led to a deterioration in the sale of raw materials. The main reasons for the decline of the industry can also be attributed to the strengthening of legislative requirements on the part of the state for the cultivation of hemp due to the content of psychoactive substances in it.
At the moment, we are seeing increasing industry interest in plants that restore soils, which include hemp.
Over the past years, researchers at the Institute of Bast Crops of the UAAS have created hemp varieties that do not contain psychoactive substances, which does not pose a social threat to society. These new types of hemp have been tested in laboratory and experimental conditions as raw materials for pulp production. Innovative technologies for growing and harvesting hemp have also been developed.
Producing pulp from hemp fiber and straw is innovative and environmentally friendly. It does not contain substances such as chlorine and sulfur, which are typical for traditional technologies.
Research robots as well as technological testing have proven that hemp cultivation can provide large amounts of biomass (8-10 t/ha). Hemp straw contains about 30% fiber, from which long-fiber cellulose is produced with a yield of up to 80%. Cellulose from long hemp fiber can be used as a raw material for the production of special high-quality white paper (paper for banknotes, securities, ultra-thin paper, highly porous paper for cigarettes). From hemp straw, without isolating the bonfire, you can obtain chemithermomechanical cellulose (CTMC) with a yield of 70%, paper from which is used for printing, packaging, etc.
Subsequent studies were carried out on commercial equipment, and then industrial testing took place on BIVIS continuous on-line equipment, which was used to make pulp from flax fiber.
The test results confirm that the hemp fiber pulp project concept is a feasible project. This project allows for the construction of a pulp mill with continuous operational equipment (BIVIS extruders supplied by Clextral, press and auxiliary equipment). This is a modern process line, which, in comparison with serial operational equipment, is characterized by half the use of water and, accordingly, half the amount of wastewater. Electrical energy consumption will be 1.6 times lower than with the serial process. Along with this, the continuous process through the high frequency of fiber passage in the operational process and significant heat emission in the fiber compression zones in BIVIS equipment is characterized by low energy consumption. The system is economical and environmentally friendly, which was a decisive factor in the decision to build a plant for the production of pulp. A big advantage is the fact that in a continuous process the concentration of waste that can be used as fertilizer is 3 times higher than in a serial system.
The planned project is a wonderful alternative to reduce energy consumption.
The project allows for the construction of a pulp production plant with the following capacity:
10,000 t/year of bleached hemp fiber pulp;
10,000 t/year of bleached hemp straw pulp.
There are great prospects for the sale of high-quality paper (for banknotes, cards, documents, securities) made from long-fiber cellulose. This type of cellulose, as well as its production technology, can be sold both in Ukraine and abroad.
The technology for producing pulp from hemp straw is a competitive invention. This product is an alternative to chemothermomechanical cellulose produced from wood. The superior quality of hemp straw pulp, which is significantly higher than that of wood pulp, can help reduce the amount of raw materials used and, accordingly, save money for the manufacturer. This product can fully satisfy customers’ conditions and provide a new form of pulp market.
In 2007, 913.8 thousand were produced in Ukraine. tons of paper and cardboard, which is 113.9% of the previous year’s level (802.4 thousand tons in 2006). Enterprises producing cardboard boxes have experienced significant development (the production growth rate was 115%), the production of materials for corrugated cardboard increased by 21.1%, notebooks – by 15.5%).
1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007
Paper and
cardboard, thousand tons 912.0 304.0 409.6 768.8 802.4 913.8
newspaper, thousand tons 0 15.8 26.0 35.7 37.9 37.3
Base paper, sanitary
hygienic thousand tons 56.2 27.3 56.1 110.0 116.1 119.3
Container cardboard (including
corrugated paper) thousand tons 100.5 98.7 210.3 434.2 451.4 551.9
Corrugated cardboard boxes million m2 286.0 120.8 171.1 654.7 685.5 804.1
The rapid growth of the furniture and construction industries results in a persistent increase in deforestation and the price of pulp increases.
Growing hemp has beneficial effects on the environment:
– no need to use pesticides;
– can be grown on contaminated land and serves to restore it (cleanses the soil of heavy metals), is an excellent precursor to growing products for the food industry;
– wastewater can be used as natural fertilizers and contributes to the formation of humus and the modernization of soil class;
– 1 hectare of hemp can absorb about 2.5 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).
3. Market analysis and marketing concept
3.1 Demand and market
Today on the Ukrainian market of cardboard and paper products there are enough free niches, the development of which should be attractive to investors. The most effective areas of investment, according to the association’s specialists, may be the development of production of the following products:
– fibrous semi-finished products for the production of cardboard and paper products based on the use of annual plants (straw, etc.);
– printed types of paper;
– perforated paper for forms;
– offset paper for duplicating equipment;
– sack paper.
Analysis of the results of the work of domestic cardboard and paper enterprises and the state of their assets allows us to identify key problems in the further development of the pulp and paper industry in Ukraine.
The construction of a new plant in Ukraine for the production of cellulose from hemp fiber and straw is necessary primarily due to the world demand for long-fiber cellulose. Its price does not depend on fluctuations in the pulp and paper industry market, but depends only on the quality and amounts to $3600-3800/t of very high quality pulp.
According to the collected information, CTMC from hemp straw has less demand in the market. However, it is economically profitable to sell such cellulose at a price of 1800 $/t for the lowest quality cellulose.
In the world, cellulose from long-fiber hemp is used to make 2 types of paper, in particular:
– high-quality paper for use as paper for banknotes, documents, securities, airmail, ultra-thin paper, filter paper in vacuum cleaners, etc.;
– high quality cigarette paper: paper for tea bags, cigarettes, duplicates, low quality fabrics, ribbons, etc.
In combination with wood pulp, the above-described pulp can be used to make high-quality document printing paper.
The unlimited number of possible combinations with long-fiber pulp, wood pulp and waste paper in the papermaking process provides great potential for the market and allows paper manufacturers to meet customer requirements.
Given the decline in the world’s forest resources, restrictions on deforestation imposed by environmentalists, and the ever-increasing price of wood pulp, hemp pulp can be considered an alternative for the pulp and paper industry.
Hemp pulp is often given priority over wood pulp because certificates of origin are not required for use in the production of some types of environmentally friendly paper.
Wood pulp, which is used for some types of paper, must be made from raw materials collected from a specified area, which is confirmed by the Forestry Council or an appropriate certificate.
A certificate is not required for manufacturing from 100% recycled fiber (recycled paper) or using non-wood raw materials.
The new pulp mill will produce high quality pulp from hemp fiber and straw using innovative solutions.
Good prospects for the pulp market are confirmed by the fact that in 1999, paper production in the world totaled 316 thousand. t, of which 150 thousand tons of white paper and only 5 thousand tons of paper made using the TCF method (chlorine-free).
Due to environmental policies adopted in many developed countries, countries such as Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Holland, Scandinavian countries and Japan prefer to import TCF pulp.
Global consumption of pulp produced using non-wood raw materials is estimated at 200,000 tons annually (however, there is no clear data on the production of this type of pulp in China). Such low production results are associated with the high cost of raw materials.
In Ukraine during 1990-2007. There were simultaneous changes in indicators of the level of both production and specific consumption of paper, cardboard and products made from them. In 2007, for the first time in 17 years, the volume of paper and cardboard production exceeded the volume of 1990 (912 thousand tons), when the pulp and paper industry of Ukraine was at its highest level before a protracted decline. The total consumption of cardboard and paper products in Ukraine over the past eight years alone has increased by an average of 15% per year and in 2007 is estimated at more than 1.5 million tons. Since 2000, the consumption of paper and cardboard in Ukraine has increased by 2.5 times. According to experts, by 2021 the consumption of paper products in Ukraine will exceed 2 million tons, of which 1 million tons will be provided through imports.
The production and demand forecast shows the need to provide sufficient amounts of fiber raw materials. This will require expansion of existing production capacity and increased recovery of waste paper.
There are excellent prospects for the market for high-quality paper, which will be made from long-fiber pulp in Ukraine, due to the large and constantly increasing demand in our country and abroad, the low level of production in Ukraine, the development of production technology and the potential for raw materials.
The pellets, which are made from hemp kernels during raw material preparation, are sold to power plants. The EU Directive obliges power plants to constantly increase the biomass of fuel, so there are no problems with the sale of pellets.
3.2 Competition, market location and consumer groups
The investor company, in collaboration with the Institute of Bast Crops of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, made a preliminary market analysis in order to determine competition and sales opportunities for cellulose from hemp fiber and straw. The analysis is limited to the European market only because its consumer interest is sufficient.
It is confirmed that there is a strong demand for bleached long fiber pulp from bast plants such as hemp and flax. This demand can be satisfied at least partially because there is a new, innovative production technology without the use of sulfur and chlorine. This technology, compared to other long-fiber pulp production technologies, is characterized by half the water consumption, less wastewater, less energy consumption and less steam consumption. Additional advantages in supporting the project are the research potential of Ukraine, the suitability of sown areas and good climatic and soil conditions, which allow for the growth of high yields of straw and hemp fiber.
It is expected that a new plant will be created to produce fiber and sell 10,000 tons of hemp fiber annually. Taking into account the significantly lower production costs, environmentally friendly waste-free technology, and the stable and high price of the final product on the market, we can state that the sale of cellulose is not in danger.
In addition, in order to ensure the economic viability of the Project, it is planned to produce and sell bleached chemithermal pulp (BCCHP) from hemp stalk at a rate of approximately 10,000 t/year. There is a new product on the world market, VCTMC, which is an alternative to chemithermomechanical cellulose, which has been used to this day. In general, in Ukraine and in the world the demand for chemothermic cellulose is high with a growing trend. Over the past 8 years (1999 – 2007) there has been an increase of 27%.
In Europe, there are 4 plants for the production of cellulose from hemp fiber: Celulosa de Levante S. A. – Celesa; Papeteries de Maudit s A.S.; Papeteries de Saint Girons; Turkiye Seluloz ve Kagit Febrikalari A. S. – SEKA Kastamonu Mill.
However, most of the mills described below produce long-fiber pulp for their paper production. Depending on the paper market situation, they may be potential buyers of long-fiber pulp.
There is only one pulp mill that is a direct competitor to this Project. This is Celulosa de Levante S.A. – Celesa in Spain, which produces pulp for the purpose of sale only.
Celulosa de Levante S.A. – Celesa – Spain
The plant started operating in 1952. They initially produced pulp from rice straw to eliminate waste from the Ebro Delta rice plantations. Then, thanks to market demand, they began producing pulp from flax and hemp. Sisal and abaca were introduced in the 1980s and more recently cotton and kenaf.
Celulosa de Levante S.A. – Celesa signs long-term contracts for the supply of raw materials to ensure continuity of supply. The plant is the owner of flax and hemp plantations.
The plant employs 95 people. Traditional equipment that consumes energy is used to produce serial systemizers, each with a capacity of 113 m3.
The following plants belong to a group that produces long fiber pulp for its paper production: Papeteries de Maudit s A.S.; Papeteries de Saint Girons; Turkiye Seluloz ve Kagit Febrikalari A. S. – SEKA Kastamonu Mill.
Papeteries de Maudit s A. S. – France
This plant began operations in 1827. In 1855, Joseph de Maudit decided to change the production profile and replaced the production of typewriter paper with the production of tissue paper. In 1951, this plant was included in the Schweitzer-Maudit International, Inc. concern.
Today it employs 173 workers. Its annual turnover is approximately 161,293,000 euros. The plant has 11 paper making machines and capacity to produce pulp from flax fiber. It offers the following products: cellulose, tissue paper, paper for cigarette filters, tissue packaging paper (it is the European leader in this segment), printing paper 35 g/m3, offset paper, ultra-thin paper. Annual production, including all products, is 54,550 tons
Papeteries de Saint Girons – France
The Papeteries de Saint Girons factory is characterized by extensive experience in the production of tissue paper (more than 100 years) and other high-quality papers. In 1998, it was purchased by Schweitzer-Maudit International.
Today the plant employs 347 employees. He owns 3 machines for producing paper 180-360 cm in length. They produce the following products: textile pulp, tissue paper, cigarette filter paper, thin lightweight printing paper. Annual production – 29370 tons
Both plants belong to the concern Schweitzer-Maudit International Inc., which is considered the largest supplier of high-quality paper for the cigarette industry Schweitzer-Maudit International Inc. It operates in 90 countries such as the USA, France, Brazil, Indonesia, Canada. It employs 3,600 people. It is listed on the stock exchange with the letters SWM.
Turkiye Seluloz ve Kagit Febrikalari A. S. – SEKA Kastamonu Mill
The Seka pulp mill began by producing long-fiber pulp from hemp for its own production of cigarette filter paper and tissue paper in 1984. The mill offers products such as cigarette filter paper, tissue paper, and paper used in surgery. The annual production of paper is 10,200 tons and hemp pulp – 4,160 tons.
Preliminary analysis shows that there is great interest in the products offered by the following European companies:
Cham Paper Group (Switzerland, Italy, Norway)
The Cham Paper Group includes 5 factories located in Switzerland, Italy and Norway. They have 9 paper making machines which produce 265,000 tons of paper annually. The Group employs 1,030 people.
Cham Paper Group offers the following range of products: packaging paper, technical paper including filters for the tissue industry.
RAPID NL b.v. (Holland)
RAPID NL b.v. is an important supplier of coffee that has been present on the world market for 40 years. Today I became interested in hemp cellulose. If it meets the requirements of RAPID NL b.v. and the price suits them, there is the possibility of mutual cooperation (they need several thousand tons of hemp cellulose annually).
Hollingsworth & Bose GmbH & Co Kg (Germany)
Hollingsworth & Bose GmbH & Co Kg was founded in 1843 and for 150 years it has been a manufacturer and supplier of technical paper, in particular for the production of automobile and pool filters, paper for vacuum cleaner bags. The plant employs 250 workers and has an annual production of 13,000 tons.
Cruppo Cordenons SPA (Wlochy, Belgium)
Cruppo Cordenons, which was founded by the Gilberti family, has been producing high quality paper for 4 generations. Cruppo Cordenons owns 2 factories Cordenons and Scerelle in Italy and the Malmedy factory in Belgium. Thanks to advanced technology, Cruppo Cordenons has an important position in the global market.
The plant employs 264 people. It offers a wide range of high-quality tissue papers, such as filter papers, technical papers, including waterproof papers. Annual production amounts to 35,000 tons
The Malmedy plant employs 300 people and has an annual production volume of 90,000 tons
Cartiera Magnani 2000 SPA (Italy)
The Magnani mills, which have been known since the 13th century, produce paper in the Pescia regions. In the second half of the 18th century, they began selling paper to Spain, England and other countries in southern Africa. Today, Cartiera Magnani, employing 64 people, continues the tradition of producing high-quality paper from pure cellulose, cotton and other high-quality raw materials, using modern technology. The plant offers the following products: banknote paper, securities paper, filter paper, printing paper, handmade paper, etc.
Cartiera Rossi SPA (Italy)
Cartiera Rossi SPA was founded in 1878 and produces tissue paper, cigarette filters, packaging paper, handkerchief paper from pure wood pulp and pulp combined with flax, hemp and other bast plants. They produce 10,000 tons annually. It was recently bought by Cartiera del Maglio.
Cartiera del Maglio SPA (Italy)
The Cartiera del Maglio SPA plant has extensive experience in paper production. It began operations in 1435. Since 1926, the plant has specialized in the production of tissue paper made from 100% flax/hemp/wood pulp or mixed pulp, such as flax, hemp and wood. The production level of tissue paper is about 9000 tons annually.
You can also use services provided by professional paper products marketing agencies, such as Cellmark, the largest paper products marketing company in the world. Cellmark is a unique organization. It exists in 90 global markets and has 45 offices in 23 countries. It employs 600 employees. In addition to marketing activities, it offers logistics, financial and risk management services. The company cooperates with 600 suppliers and acts as an agent in the pulp and paper industry. It can purchase 3 million tons/year and satisfy the demand of 2,000 customers.
Polska Wytw;rnia Papier;w Warto;ciowych S. A. (Poland)
Polska Wytw;rnia Papier;w Warto;ciowych S.A. (PWPW) was founded in 1919. Own capital is PLN 113,800,000. This factory is included in the list of companies of strategic importance in Poland. This is one of the most modern companies that operates in the market of documents that have a security system. Polish banknotes produced by PWPW are considered to be some of the finest banknotes in the world. The goal of PWPW is to obtain a certificate that gives the right to produce Euro banknotes. Moreover, PWPW offers the following products: personal documents, travel documents, communication documents, stamps, excise signs and other papers with a security system: checks, promotions, coupons, tickets, certificates and more. The main clients of PWPW are: Polish National Bank, the largest banks in Poland PKO BP S.A., Pekao S.A., BZ WBK, Raiffeisen Bank Polska s. A., Kredyt Bank S.A.
Fabryka Papieru Sp;lka z o.o. w D;browicy (Poland)
Fabryka Papieru Sp;lka z o.o. w D;browicy was founded in 1837 and is the oldest factory in Silesia. This is a joint stock company. After modernization in the 70s, and especially the recent investment of Fabryka Papieru Sp;lka z o.o. w D;browicy, despite its age, is a manufacturer of high-quality paper: white paper, environmental paper and paper made from recycled paper.
Fabryka Papieru Konstans Sp. Z o.o. (Poland)
Fabryka Papieru Konstans Sp. Z o.o. produces the following types of paper: filter paper and paper made from cellulose.
Clucholaskie Zaklady Papiernicze Sp. Z o.o. (Poland)
Clucholaskie Zaklady Papiernicze Sp. Z o.o. produces the following types of paper: for printing, newsprint, toilet paper.
At the end of 2003 in Ukraine, 14 leading enterprises and organizations operating in the domestic market of cardboard and paper products united into the Association of Ukrainian Pulp and Paper Industry Enterprises “Ukrbumaga”.
Today, the association includes 31 enterprises:
– JSC “Zhydachiv Pulp and Paper Mill” (Lviv region);
– OJSC “Kiev Cardboard and Paper Mill” (Kiev region);
– OJSC “Izmail Pulp and Cardboard Mill” (Odessa region);
– State Chemical Company “Ukrpapirprom” (Kyiv);
– OJSC “Malinsk Paper Mill” (Zhytomyr region);
– JSC “Lvovkartonoplast” (Lvov);
– PEO “Ukrtorma” (Kyiv);
– OJSC “Dnepropetrovsk Paper Mill” (Dnepropetrovsk);
– OJSC “Koryukiv Technical Paper Factory” (Chernigov region);
– OJSC “Poninkovskaya Cardboard and Paper Mill” (Khmelnitsky region);
– CJSC “KSU Tekhmontazh” (Kyiv);
– Donetsk-Vtorma LLC (Donetsk);
– LLC “ELO Ltd” (Kyiv);
– LLC “August – Ukraine” (Kyiv);
– LLC “Trade and Industrial Group “Ukrainian Paper” (Kyiv);
– Interpap LLC (Dnepropetrovsk);
– Malinsky Special Paper Factory LLC (Zhytomyr region);
– Tetrada LLC (Kyiv);
– Shkolyarik LLC (Ternopil);
– Dreams Come True LLC (Kyiv City);
– Brisk LLC (Kharkov);
– Premier-Papir LLC (Kyiv);
– JSC “Ukrainian Research Institute of Paper” (Kyiv);
– LLC “Polisvit” (Dnepropetrovsk);
– Pen Line LLC (Dnepropetrovsk);
– LLC “Publishing House Podolia” (township Litin, Vinnytsia region);
– CJSC “Polygraphist” (Kyiv);
– PKTP OrgBumProekt LLC (Kyiv);
– LLC “Trading House “Dukat”;
– CJSC “Perspective”;
– Planeta-service-K LLC
The analysis demonstrates that the expected volume of hemp pulp production based on new, environmentally friendly and economical technology will be realized. The increase in prices for wood for the production of pulp from wood, along with other advantages, creates good conditions for the development of the production of hemp pulp, which is currently represented on the European market by a minimum number of producers.
To conclude from the above, the planned plant for the production of pulp from hemp fiber and straw can only meet the demand for a small percentage.
We can expect long-fiber pulp prices to remain stable due to the huge demand for this type of pulp.
Conducted marketing research gives us confidence that all products (about 20,000 tons/year) will be sold.
4. Materials used
To achieve full production capacity of the plant:
10,000 tons of cellulose from hemp straw,
10,000 tons of cellulose from hemp fiber.
The straw yield is 8-10 t/ha and the fiber yield is 2.4-3 t/ha.
To produce 10,000 tons of hemp fiber per year, a sown area of ​​50,000 hectares is required.
0.28*5000 ha * 8 t/ha = 11200 t/year
Since the yield of cellulose from straw is 65-70% for the production of 10,000 tons/year, another 2,000 hectares are needed.
In total, to produce 20,000 tons (10,000 10,000) of cellulose annually it is necessary
5000 hectares 2000 hectares = 7000 hectares and this will be enough for the operation of the plant.
4.1 Structure of means of production